Tuesday, June 18, 2013

Contoh Latar Belakang Skripsi (BAB I) dalam Bahasa Inggris PTK

Ada yang lagi proses penyusunan skripsi??? atau pengen tau aja tentang gimana sih CONTOH LATAR BELAKANG DALAM BAB I SKRIPSI PENELITIAN TINDAKAN KELAS atau yang lebih dikenal dengan PTK? tenang sobat Shantycr7 ini langsung nih skripsi ku sendiri yang aku posting semoga bisa membantu sobat ya yang berkepentingan,,tapi ingat ya sobat JANGAN COBA-COBA COPAS...plagiat namanya,,,

Oya dalam penelitianku aku menggunakan model pembelajaran learning cycle.....
Oce, setelah ini nanti aku mau posting tips menyusun skripsi (hehhe pada hal aku juga lagi proses ;P)..

Back to topic guys, anyway ini latar belakang skripsi ini tentang jurusan yang aku ambil di kampus yaitu PENDIDIKAN AKUNTANSI..jadi bukan bahasa inggris tapi penulisannya aja yang aku buat dalam bahasa inggris (berhubung karena skripsiku bahasa inggris)...

Langsung aja deh, ini !


1.1       The Background of the Study
            The field of education is one of  the very important field and needs a special attention from all walks of life because education has a vital role to develop the human resource that play a role in the formation of students to be assets of the nation's expected to become productive human. This is in accordance with the National Education Goal in the Act No. 20 chapter 3 in 2003, namely: national education aims to develop the potential of learners in order to become a faith man, piety to Almighty God, noble attitude, healthy, knowledgeable, competent, creative, independent, and become a democratic and accountable citizens.
            To achieve a good education quality certainly can not be separated from teaching and learning activity as the main activity in the school. Maryono and Trisngati (2011) expressed that it can not be denied that the teaching and learning process in the classroom appeared tending to be passive, the learning is more focused on the teachers and students still depend on the teachers, it can be seen from the tendencing of most teachers which active in talking in front of the class so the students get boring, sleepy and annoying the other students. Beside that, the choice and utilisation of learning models is also has an important role because until now there are many students that are less encouraged in studying because the teachers use the traditional or convensional learning model.
            In achieving the goals of National Education and improving the quality of education, certainly the teaching and learning process is quite determine which involve teachers and students. A teacher is the proffesional personality who has the main duty, namely educating, leading by hand, guiding, training and evaluating the students. While the students are the subject of study who have the unic and potensial characteristics which determine the successful of education. The student’s capability in responding and implement the materials learning as well as utilize it, has the big effect in the successful of study.
            Uno and Mohamad (2011:198) stated that “there are several factors which influence the effectiveness of student’s learning, namely the internal factors that consist of physiological aspects and psychological aspects”. In the process of teaching and learning, the activeness of learners is very important and should be noted by educators so that the learning process will be completely obtaining the optimal results. The teachers just stimulate the activeness of learners. Teachers can also develop the communication climate in the classroom during the learning takes place, that is the interactive feedback between teachers and learners.
            Based on the observation conducted by the researcher in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun, the researcher has been obtained the information that the teaching and learning activities as well as the study result of accounting subject tend to be low. The activities of teacher still tend to dominate the learning activities so that students take on the subject material from the teacher and waiting for an explanation from the teacher without trying to look and find it by themselves by reading or analysing, they lacked of courage in expressing their opinion, afraid to ask teacher and friends about the subject material which they do not understand so that there is no reciprocal reaction from students. Beside that, the teaching methods of teacher is less creative and just occurred in one direction, namely is the conventional methods or merely lecturing. That makes the teaching and learning process get boredom and drowsiness for students, so that they can not absorb the maximum subject materials.
            That case proven by the data of students’s accounting study result in 3rd  Social  Science Grade 11th by the three daily tests, found that out of 32 students only 16 students (50%) on the first daily test, 14 students (43,8%) in the second daily test and 12 students (37,5%) in the third daily test stated who achieve the minimum completeness criteria set by the school namely 65. For more clearly information can be seen through the table and chart below :
Table 1.1
Trend of Student’s Study Results in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun

Acd. Year

Average Value
Percentage of Students that Reach the Minimum Completeness Criteria (MCC)
Percentage of Students that DO NOT Reach the Minimum Completeness Criteria (MCC)
3rd IPS. Grade 11th
Daily Test Value (DTV) 1



Daily Test Value (DTV) 2



Daily Test Value (DTV) 3



(Source: List of Daily Test Value of SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun)

Figure 1.1
Chart of Student’s Study Result in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun

            The observation result conducted by the researcher further showed that there are some students who are willing and in passion to study accounting, but many students were less enthusiastic in studying it and not paying attention to what teacher said. In addition, the learning conditions are not conducive. The researcher also saw that in the teaching and learning process, the teacher less in giving motivation and not creative in utilizing the variation of learning model or strategy.  The students are seemed used to hearing, noting then memorize the learning material. It makes the students become bored, lazy and have thought of when the lesson of accounting subject will going to be over so that some students disturb another students, playing games through their mobile phone or sending the SMS while waiting the lesson to be over.
            The facts that shown the low of learning and teaching activities indicate that the student isn’t competent and qualified. It makes sense that, if the student isn’t competent, they will be difficult to apply their knowledge in social life, facing the trouble to find the job because of they have no qualification. And also if they want to continue their study, they will difficult to face the challenges in college.
            Based on the discussion the researcher done with the accounting teacher, from year to year, the topic “preparing the financial statements of service companies” become the most difficult topic for most of students, it is the last topic of all topics of accounting in the last semester in the Social Science Grade 11th.
Financial statement is the output and outcomes of the accounting process that be material information for the users as one of materials in the decision making process, it also describes the successful indicator of the company in achieving the goal.
            Learning Cycle is one of the learning model of student centered learning. Through some investigation conducted by the researcher, this learning model is never implemented yet in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun especially in accounting subject. Based on the past studies, this learning model is recommended to school to be applied because it is one of the learning model which is centered the student to the learning process and actively role the students in the learning process. Based on the issue above it is needed the teacher’s creativity by selecting and implementing an appropriate learning model to enhance the activity and study result of accounting subject in the learning process. In implementing the learning models it is attempted to use the student centered learning models so that  the students have the opportunity to be more active in studying and easier to understand and absorb the subject learning materials. For this reason, the researcher try to implement one of the learning model called Learning Cycle in accounting subject which is discussed the topic about “preparing the financial statements of service companies”.
            Learning Cycle is one of the learning model of student centered learning. Learning Cycle is a learning model that consists of a series of stages of activities organized in such a way so that the learners can master and competent on the subject materials that must be achieved in the way of learning with an active role. This learning model is based on the constructivist paradigm. This learning model suggests that the learning process can involve the students in active learning so that there are process of assimilation, accommodation, and organization in the cognitive structure of students. If construction process of knowledge occurs well so learner will be able to increase their understanding to the topic studied.
            This model consisted of seven stages which interrelated one each other, namely elicit, engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate, dan extend. In elicit and engage stages, the teacher tried to encourage and develop the curiosity of students based on the topics that will be taught. It is done by asking the factual questions about the process of daily life (related to the topic of discussion). Thus, students will provide or give the responses or answers, then the teacher can use the students’s answers as the basis to know their prior knowledge about the topic that will learned. In explore stage, student makes some research activities in a small group which consist of discussing, gathering data or information, observation, guessing and testing them and making hypotheses based on their experiences and their prior knowledge. In explain stage, teacher provides the opportunities for students to demonstrate their understanding or skills through their own words. In elaborate stage, the students can practice their new knowledge, suggest solutions, create new problems and make decisions and introduce logical implications. In evaluate stage, teacher give an assessment from the elicit stages until elaborate stages, follow-through on questions, looking for student growth and provide reinforcement of the concepts learned. In the final stages that is extend stage, teacher shows the relationship between the concepts learned with other concept and student can expand it.
            Based on the description above, the researcher is interested in conducting the study entitled “Enhance the Student's Learning Activity and Study Result Through the Implementation of Learning Cycle Model in Accounting Subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun at Academic Year 2012/2013”.
1.2       Identification of the Problems
  Based on the background of the above problems, the researcher have identified some of the problems encountered are:
1.      How to enhance the student’s learning activity in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun?
2.      How to enhance the student’s study result in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun?
3.      Is the implementation of Learning Cycle model can improve the student’s learning activities and study result in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun?
4.      Is there any significant difference in result intercycle?
1.3       The Problem Formulation
   Based on the identification of the problems that have been disclosed above, the problem formulation raised in this research are:
1.      How the implementing of Learning Cycle model can enhance the student’s learning activity in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun?
2.      How the implementing of Learning Cycle model can enhance the student’s study result in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun?
3.      How the significant difference in result intercycle?
1.4       The Problem Solving
            According to the background description above, the issues that in reality that the activities and student’s study result is still not achieve the desired target, so the ability of teachers to implement the learning process needs to be improved. In this case the researcher consult with teacher accounting concerned about the implement of Learning Cycle model accompanied with its application steps so that the teacher knows exactly what it's Learning Cycle instructional model that will be expected to increase the activity and student’s study result.
  Learning Cycle is a student-centered learning model. Students take an active role in making hypotheses, searching for answers to explain all hypotheses obtained for other students so there will be an exchange of opinions. Learning Cycle model also requires linking the material learned in the real world, so students will know the purpose and usefulness of the material they study.
            The initial stage namely elicit, teacher gives the motivation and passion about the importance for them to learn the material to be learned in early learning so that students do not immediately get bored but excited to learn the material. In this early stage the most important thing is to know the extent to which teachers have prior knowledge of students so teachers can condition a student's knowledge of the material. For example, by asking "What do you know about the accounting cycle?". In the second stages namely engage stage, the teacher tries to capture students’s attention, get students thinking about the subject matter, raise questions in student’s minds, stimulate thinking, and access prior knowledge.  To arouse the student interest teacher can use a discrepant event, telling a story, giving a demonstration, or by showing an object, picture, or brief. The point of this stage is the capturing and construct the student’s interesting so that they want to know more about the material. The corresponding conversation with the students may access and add their prior learning in this stage.  After the teacher knows about the student’s prior knowledge, then the teacher has students to make a small discussion groups consist of four or five students per group and provides an opportunity for students to observe, collect and record the data, isolate variables, interpret results, develop hypotheses, and organize their findings over the discussion. It is called the explore stage. From this activities, students are encouraged to do assimilation causing an imbalance in their mental structure (cognitive disequilibrium) and the emerging questions that lead to the development of high level reasoning. The emergence of these questions indicate the students’s readiness to pursue the next stage. the teacher’s role is to provide support and scaffolding. Student’s role is to construct their own understanding through active experience. After the discussion the next stage is explain. Students report their findings through their own analysis or discussion result and discoveries to the class. Teacher allows opportunities to verbalize and clarify the concept and terms and summarizes the results of the exploration stage. The teacher guides students toward coherent and consistent generalizations, helps students with distinct scientific vocabulary and lead the discussion through the debriefing process. In this stage the teacher can conclude the extend to which they understand the material being studied and give the assessment. After the explain stage, the next stage in this model is elaborate. The teacher has students to apply the newly learned concepts to new contexts. Pose a different (but similar) question and have students explore it using the concept they have learned. The student do the questions of teacher. Application of concept can increase of the concept understanding and motivation to learn because students know the real application of the concept that learned. This phase is suitable with organization phase in Piaget theory. In this stage the teacher can lead the student to do what they must do and observe the student’s activities. The next stage after this is evaluate stage. The teacher evaluates students’s progress toward achieving the instructional goals. Students learn to assess their understanding and abilities. As well as the teacher uses the formative assessment from elicit stage and assess, for example, the design of the investigation, the interpretation or presentation of the data, or follow-through on questions, and looking for student growth during the discussion is taking over. Growth is the desired change in the students’s understanding of key concepts, principles, and skills in a differentiated classroom. Expectations vary according to the student’s beginning point. Summative assessment may be used here to measure achievement and assign a grade. The final stage is extend. In this stage the teacher can stimulate the students to find the relationship of concept that learned with the other concept. It can increase and develop the students’s reasoning.
            After elicit stage to extend stage is completed, so the teacher reasserts all the points that have been explained by several students. Then the teacher gives criticism and suggestions for improvement the students. Teacher also expresses the importance of using this learning model because this model will make them cooperate and actively to give their opinions and construct their reasoning.
            From the description above, the problem solving of this study is implementing the Learning Cycle leraning model which is expected can enhance the students’s learning activities and study result of accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun which will be applied by The Classroom Action Research.
1.5       The Objectives of the Study
            Based on the problem formulation above, the objectives of this study content:
1.      To investigate the implementing of Learning Cycle model in enhancing the students’s activity in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun.
2.      To investigate the implementing of Learning Cycle model in enhancing the students’s study result in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun.
3.      To know the significant difference in result intercycle.
1.6       The Benefits of the Study
The result of this study is expected to provide benefits to the users of this research information. The benefits of this study are:
1.        To add the knowledge, reasoning, insight, ability to researcher in applying the appropriate learning model to enhance the activity and study result of accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun.
2.        As an input to the school, especially for teachers in applying the learning model and method that can be used to make students active in learning of accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun.
3.        As a reference and input to academic community of Faculty of Economics, State University of Medan and other parties in doing the similar study.

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Contoh Kata Pengantar Skripsi dalam Bahasa Inggris



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