Saturday, June 8, 2013

Critical Book Mata Kuliah Metodologi Penelitian


 salam sejahtera sobat Shantycr7 yang smart (ga pake cute) hahha justkid guys.,.
barusan aq buka2 dokumen lamaku di netbook, trus ketemu deh ama tugas metodologi penelitian waktu semester 6 lalu,,,6 ato 5 ya??? hehhe

"Critical Book"...yupz sobat, waktu itu kami disuruh dosen metopel buat kritikal book, kalo pake bahasa inggris lebih bagus kata bapa itu makanya aku buat gini :)
Semoga bisa membantu sobat yg lagi nyari referensi contoh bentuk kritikal buk heheh atau sekadar baca2 buat nambah2 ilmu.,.
well happy reading..... 



Lecture : Drs.D.Simanihuruk, MS. Coop

Reviewed By :

Economy Department
Accounting Education

Book’s Title             : Methodology of Educational Research
Author                    : Lokesh Koul
Publisher                 : Vikas Publishing House Ltd
Published                : 1997
Pages                     : 541
The Main Topic        : The Methods and Techniques Suited To The Field of Education 
ISBN                      : 0-7069-3852-3
Reviewed By            : Susi Susanti Tindaon (State University of Medan)
Reviewed Published   : April 2012

This is the third edition of Lokesh Koul’s book. The first and the second edition of  his book which is written by Lokesh Koul in 1984 and 1988 has been written for use as a text in the research methodology course and as a useful reference for students working for their Master’s or Doctoral degree and also for researchers interested in conducting research in Education and other related disciplines. The book has been very popular among students, researchers and teacher of education, physical education, sosiology, psychology, economics, commerce, law, home science, humanities, biosciences, and management studies mostly because its content material, examples and illustrations have been drawn from Indian situations.
This third edition of Lokesh Koul’s book is really updates, expands and further clarifies a number of ideas presented in previous edition. Additional concepts, techniques and illustration have been added at a number of places. In the chapter “Areas of Educational Research”, the treatment of areas such as primary education, secondary education and higher education has been modified and updated by highlighting spesific problems relating to educational needs of various groups. The section on non-formal education as an altenative strategy in the univesalization and futherance of education has been modified keeping in view the education problems of girls. In the same context, a new section on “Open and Distance Education” has been added. The section on “Priority Areas of Educational Research in India” has been updated in the context of National Education Policy (1986), it is the programme of action (1992) and survey of research in education. A new chapter “Qualitative Data Analysis”, has been added both highlighting various methods for the analysis of qualitative data and different strategies used for validating and verifying results.
This paper, try to give a view or try to describe about what Lokesh Koul’s written in his book. Beside that, this paper also hoped to give some of critics to Lokesh Koul’s book base on the other books view and and also the writer’s opinions. May this paper can be usefull for those who read this paper such as can give the more opinion about what Lokesh Koul written.

The third edition of the Lokesh Koul’s book which is described about the methodology of educational research, consists of 13 chapters, where 5 chapters has been added by Koul of his latest edition. The thirteen chapters of Lokesh Koul’s book are :

·         Introduction
·         Areas of Education Research
·         The Research Problem and Preparation of the Reseach Proposal
·         Review of the Related Literatur
·         Data Collection
·         Qualitative Data Analysis
·         Quantitative Data Analysis
·         Statistical Methods
·         Inferential Statistics
·         The Research Report
·         Methods of Educational Research
·         The Descriptive Method
·         Experimental Method

The review of each chapter will explain under here.
Chapter 1 : Introduction
In this beginning of the chapter, Lokesh Koul try to describe about the general purpose of the methodology research. It describes the various methods of acquiring knowledges, the nature of science, the meaning and characteristics of research, the nature of educational research, basic and applied research and the end of this chapter, Lokesh Koul give the tests.
Lokes Koul said that the methods by which man from the earlier time sought answer to his problems can be classified under the following categories : authority, tradition, experience, deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, and scientific method. That is about the acquiring knowledge. Then Koul view about the nature of science in this chapter. From the earlier times man has been curious about anything he could not understand. Slowly and gradually he developed the scientific method of thinking and of investigating his problem which, today is producing as tonishing result. Koul said on his book that science is based on certain beliefs and assumptions which are briefly describeds under :
1.    All events in nature are, at least to a degree, lawful or ordered, predictible and regular. This order, predictibility and regularity of nature can be discovered through the activities of the scientific method.
2.    Truth can ultimately be derived only from observation. Scientist does not depend upon authority as a source of truth, but relies upon empirical observation.      
3.    The scientist maintains a doubtful attitude towards data. He regards findings as tentative unless they are verified.
4.    The scientist is objective, impartial and logical in collecting and interpreting data or making observations.
5.    Scientist does not bother about the moral implications of his findings. He always deals with facts and does not consider what finding is good or what is bad for us.
6.    The ultimate goal of science is to integrate and systematize findings into a meaningful pattern or theory.

Futhermore, Lokesh Koul on his book also describe about the role of scientific theories and characteristic of a sound theory that explain about the definition of what is theory and the explanation of four characteristics of theory in the part of nature of science that are :
1.    A theory must be stated in simple and precise terms.
2.    A theory must be in conformity both with the observed and with the previously established body of knowledge or validated theories.
3.    A theory must provide means for its own interpretation and verification.
4.    A theory must guide new discoveries and identify areas which are in need of investigation.
Koul on his book said that research may be defined as the application of the scientific method in the study of problems. At times, the terms research and scientific method are used interchangeably. Research is a systematic attempt to obtain answers to meaningful questions about phenomena or events through the application of scientific procedures.
Aducational research refers to a systematic attempt to gain a better understanding of the educational process, generally with a view to improving its efficiency. It is an application of scientific method to the study of educational problems.
On this first chapter of Lokesh Koul’s book also provide the opinion of an author named Traves that explain the definition of educational research. Koul written that Traves states the educational research is represents an activity directed towards the development of an organized body of scientific knowledge about the events with which aducators are concerned.
Then on this chapter Koul also explain the historical development of educational research. He said that the scientific era in the physical sciences began in the seventeenth century. The emergence of education as a science is only eighty years old. It was due not only to the complex nature of the phenomena to be studied, but also to slow progress in the development of the measuring tools for collecting data of educational interest. Koul said that As early as 1803, Pestalozzi  proposed the scientific study of pedagoy and established his pedagogical school. Educational research before 1990 was greatly influenced by the experiments in the field of psychology. Early in the century, there was widespread interest in the exploration and development of measuring instruments needed by researchers in the field of education and psychology. While the period from 1920 to 1945 is considered a period of self criticism and improvement in educational research techniques and designs. Lokesh Koul have given the expert’s opinion in this part, named Harris (1960). Haris points out that the four kinds of criticism that greatly influenced educational research method during this period were : a) research workers gave too little attention to the less tangible aspects of education; b) research workers provided inadequate theoritical orientation for their efforts; c) single variabel laboratory research was inadequate for the complex field condition actually met in education; d)educational research gave too little attention to individual. After the explanation of the Harris, Koul the explain about the educational research after 1945. He said that since 1945, research methods and procedures have been improved with the aim of attaining more objective reliable information. Many new methods of data collection and analysis were devised. The scope and fields of educational research have greatly expanded. Lokesh Koul said that in India, importance of educational research has been recognized rather late.
Lokesh Koul on this chapter explain about the steps in educational research that are  starts with the selection of a problem that the researchers identifies from the area or field of his interest, formulation of hyphotheses, the method to be use, data collection, analysis and interpretation of data and reporting the result. After that Lokesh Koul described about the basic and applied research. According to his mind, basic research is primarily concerned with the formulation of a theory or a contribution to the existing body of knowledge. The main aim of basic research is the discovery of knowledge solely for the sake of knowledge. Applied research, on the other hand, is directed towards the solution of immadiate, spesific and practical problems. The applied research also uses the scientific method of inquiry and disign as action research. Action research is applied research conducted by the teachers, supervisors, and school administrators themselves for dealing with classroom practices.  

Chapter 2 : Areas of Educational Research
This chapter has the following general purpose. First, it lists discusses research problems relating to the following contents areas of education, second, it lists and discusses the research problems relating to the following stages and sectors of the education.
According to Lokesh Koul’s mind, problems relating to content of education are:
1.    Psychology of education
Research in educational psychology has great significance for a teacher.n he has to understand the child he is teaching, undertstand the teaching-learning process, and constantly strive to improve his method of teaching. Cognitive and non-cognitive factors, such as intelligence, attitudes, creativity, interests, motivation, personality traits, needs and adjustment of pupils provide promising fields of research in educational psychology.
Lokesh Koul said the research in educational psychology in India is of fairly recent origin. He explain that according to Pareek (1967) an analysis of the material presented in the Directory of Bihavioral Science Research in India shows that the reasearch conducted in the various fields of educational psychology in the last sixty years is hardly impressive. One of the most urgent tasks is to study problems, arising within and outside the school, which affect the affectiveness of the teacher in his task of improving the learning of students.
Another important area where a good deal of research can be undertaking is that among the exceptional children. It includes the study of all children who are either handicapped in some way or are gifted. In case of psycally handicapped children, Lokesh Koul said the opinion of Shanker (1968) which states that Shanker suggests that the extent of the incidence of the physicaln handicaps, defects and deformities and the types there of have to be ascertained. With regard to the mentally handicapped children also, there is need to determined the number of children of various degrees of retardation in the various states. Apart from this, it is to be known which of the various factors of maltreatment, poverty, negligence, broken homes, bad company, exploitation, maladjustment in the school, and so on are so important in various states and regions in the country for necesarry guidience.
Furthermore, Lokesh Koul told about the the research in India. He said that the country like India can not afford to lose creative genius. Thus research in the area of creativity needs immediate attention if Indian researchers. Koul said that studies on problem solving and logical operation using cognitive development theory of Peaget and his methodology may be of immense use in classroom teachers.
In India, psychology of education is to be recognized as one of the most important fieldof educational research. This is the first and essential requisite for the emergence of good research in education.

2.    Philosophy of Education
Education has been called the dynamic side of philosophy or an active aspect of philosophic belief. Of the various philosophical dimentions, logical dimentions reveal various significant roles which logic can perform in the formulation of educational concepts, generalizations and analogies, and in drawing out of educational inferences. In view of the demand for a philosophical foundation of education, there is an imperative need for undertaking research into the various problems pertaining to its different dimentions.
Based on research in India, Lokesh Koul said that there is need for the development of a philosophy of education from the Indian stand-point. A philosophical analysis of the problems of indiscipline, unrest, strikes, disobedience of authority and the like in the context of the prevalent circumtances and conditions would be highly significant and fruitful. According to Buch and Sheshardi (1991) on the Koul’s book, they pointed out that hardly any researchers have taken up problems related to the Indian society or Indian classroom and studied them in dept.

3.    Sociology of Education
Sociological factors have a great impact on the educational thought and practice. The study of all such factors is of great practical significance. According to Lokesh Koul, some important problems of research related to sociology of education are the study of the population explotion and changes, demographic trends and the impact of the political and social pressures on an educational system.
In India, very few researchers have been conducted in the field of sociology of  education. The problem like the teacher’s role as an agent of social change and modernization, teacher’s morale, the impact of population explosion on children admissions and academic achievement in schools, and so on. On this chapter, Lokesh Koul also showed Shah’s opinion (1987) that are said that in the third Survey of Research in Education has revealed several research gaps in sociology of education.

4.    Economics of Education
According to Lokesh Koul, economics of education is a rewarding area of educational research. The major objective of research endeavour in this area is to apply effectively the relevant economic analysis to the field of education with a view to raise the efficiency of educational system at different levels and to identify the role of education in social and economic development of the country.
Lokesh Koul said there is a need for economic evaluation of various educational programmes undertaken by the state and central governments. The problem of reducing the cost of education, increasing the resources for education, and making the education more effective for economic advantage, can be useful themes for action research.

5.    Educational Management and Administration
Research in the area of educational management and administration should aim at expanding knowledge which may help to explain various relationships underlying the process of educational management and in building a theory of educational management. Koul said that the quality of research conducted in the area of educational management and administration in India is of a poor standard. A review of such researches conducted during the period 1939 to 1980 indicate that most of the studies on educational administration in India Universites are a part of requirements for M. Ed and M.A (Education) degrees.

6.    Comparative Education
Political, cultural, socio-economic and geographical condition have an impact on the educational systems of various countries is a fruitful area of research. Another area of research in comparative education could be of making intensive area studies so as to gain insights into particular system of education. Different part of the world have come closer because of the conquest of space and distance. Due to this fact, peculiarities of a particular system of education are fast disappearing and the problems of the education are getting common to all countries.
For India Lokesh Koul said that Education Commision (1966) has recommended a two-stream pattern of secondary and higher secondary education. This idea is similar to that of British Fifth Form and the Sixth Form.
Next, Koul explain that comparative research programmes at the national level can also be undertaken to cover all the states and union territories for comparison, while the state level programmes can be confined to the comparative study of one or two other states, preferably the neighboring states because of their cultural affinity.
In this part of the Koul’s book, he also also showed the opinion of two experts, they are Deo and Kerawalla (1987), where they said in their review on research in comparative education have observed that not a single study of comparative nature is available on such crucial issues, as education for development, politics of education, education of ethnic minorities, vocational technical education, regional differences in educational provisions and educational policy foundation.

7.    Educational Measurement and Test Development
On this part, Koul explain that educational measurement is primarily concerned with the quantification of certain educational outcomes in the form of the acquisition of certain attitudes, behaviours and skills. Psychological tests are developed and are used primarily for the determination and analysis of individual differences in general intelligence, aptitudes, educational achievement and non-intelectual personality characteristics.
Research in educational measurement and test development is concerned with the critical evaluation of the existing forms of tests, the construction and standardization of valid and reliable tests for measuring the educational outcomes of teaching spesific subjects and of various educational activities. Koul said that effective evaluation of student’s attainment with respect to accepted goals of instruction is considered an indispensable aspect of good teaching. Written examinations and tests have commonly been used as the chief evaluation device and have dominated our educational system to a great extent. According to the University Education Commision (1948), if any reform in our education system has to be brought about, it must first be brought about in the examination system.
Then Koul said that achievement tests for various subjects at different levels in different languages need to the constructed and standarized. These would be helpful in comparing the achievement of students passing their examinations from different school education boards and universities; otherwise the comparison just on the basic of their examination marks becomes difficult.
There is also a great need for developing diffrent types of aptitude tests for evaluating the spesific abilities of students. In this part Koul again and again show the other expert’s opinion. They are Kulkarni and Kumar. According to their mind, human behaviour is much more dependent on the environment in which he is working.
There are several aspects of student’s growth that can not be measured solely by written examinations. Such aspects which include various personality-traits, interets, needs and values are important for determining success in certain educational and vocational fields such as medicine, social work, teaching and the like. The field of educational measurament and testing has rich potentialities for research.

8.    Curriculum, Methods and Textbooks
The nature and scope of research in curriculum could be easily understood if the meaning of the term ‘curriculum’ is properly analysed. In this part Koul showed the opinion of Good’s (1959) Dictionary of Education, the word curriculum means :
·         A systematic group of courses or sequence of subjects required for certification in a major field of study.
·         A general over all plan of the content or spesific materials of instruction that the school should offer the student by way of qualifying him for certification or for entrance into a proffesional or a vocatioanl field
·         A body of prescribe educative experiences under school supervision, designed to provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for the society of which he is a part and to qualify him for a trade or profession.
 General principles of curriculum building, analysis of curriculumin various subjects, organization of curriculum, curriculum development, its transaction and evaluation, adaptation of curriculum to children’s mental abilities and phisycal development, analysis of textbooks, concept development in various subjects, affectivness of various teaching methods, human relation in curriculum development, study habits, duration of school work, revision and modernization of curriculum are some of the important aspect of curriculum research.

9.    Teacher Education and Teaching Behavior
Lokesh Koul describe in this part that teacher education is a term rather recent in its origin. It refers to the total educative progress which contributes to the preparation of a person for a teaching job in schools. The task of identifying meaningful and measurable crieteria of teacher effectiveness is crucial in the field of teacher education. Most of recent developments in the process of teaching and learning reflect a shift in attitude of researchers with regard to the assesment of teacher affectiveness.
Teacher’s personality is one of the important variables in the teaching situation. In India, teacher education has been comparatively neglected in post-independence period though its significance has been stressed by the University Education  Commision (1949), the Secondary Education Commision (1953) and the International Team on Teachers and Curricula in Secondary School (1954). The role of teachers in the context of National Education Policy (NEP) need to be studied. Sufficient research has alrealy been undertaken in some foreign countries in the modification of teaching behaviour through the use of interaction analysis, micro-teaching, team teaching and simulation. Some significant studies on the democratic- authoritarian aspects of classroom climate have been undertaken.

10. Guidance and Counselling
The aims of guidance are both adjustive and developmental. This function is not merely that of assisting students in making educational and vocational choices, but to help them in making the best possible adjustment to the situations in the educational institutions and in the homes. The field of guidance poses problems of diagnostic and prognostic research. Research in guidance and counselling should take into account the special conditions and limitations.
More research is needed on long term manpower needs. Exploration of future needs and probable supply, should be done in all the important fields. In his book, Lokesh Koul again and again described about the Indian’s research, he said that in Indian, the researchers have concentrated their attention mainly on the problems related to vocational maturity and developmen, guidance needs and problems faced by students, selection procedures and mental health.
11. Eduactional Technology
The term educational technology has generally come to have two different meanings. One meaning refers to the detailed application of the technology of learning to practical teaching problems. The second meaning of educational technology refers to the application of engineering and technology in the development of ectro-mechanical equipment used for instructional purposes.

After Lokesh Koul explain about the problems relating to content of education, he also explain the problems relating to different stages and sectors of education, they are:
1.  Pre-primary Education
Pre-primary education is of greatest importance in the child’s physical, emotional and intelectual development. It has been rapidly gaining in popularity in the post independence period. Some people are of the view that the pre-primary education should be completely left to private enterprise while others prefer that the responsibility for it should be largely assumed by the states.
Research is also needed to settle the competing claims of quality and quantity. Lokesh Koul explain more about the some problems relating to the existing pre-primary schools need to be investigated. He said on his book that Education Commision (1966) has suggested that there is need for more coordination among different agencies that work for child care and pre-primary education.
2.    Primary Education
On this part, Lokesh Koul said that the one of the major objectives of primary education is to enrol every child in the age group 6-14 years into schools. To eradicate the evils of wastage and stagnation, some studies in the field of primary education were conducted. The scheme of part-time education especially for the children coming from poorer families may also be experimented. The selection of elementary school teachers for admission in training institutions and their recruitment in the profession also provide significant areas of research. Research is also needed to study the service conditions of elementary school teachers.
In this part, Koul said the National Policy on Education (1986) and its Programme of Education (1992) has given unqualified priority to universalisation of elementary education.

3.    Secondary Education    
Koul said that secondary education is concerned with the education of students of classes VIII to XII. It covers the adolescent period of life. For several years in the near future, it will not be possible for all states to make secondary education universal, nor will it be possible on economic grounds for a large majority of children to continuetheir education beyond the primary stage.
An important aspect of the expansion of secondary education is the need to provide part-time education to those children who are unable to continue their studies on full-time basis and may wish to prepare themselves for high school examination.
After explaining about the secondary education according to his mind, then Lokesh Koul try to show the understanding of secondary education based on the National Policy on Education (1986) that has specified certain programmes for providing adequate playground facilities, construction of additional classrooms and provision of laboratory facilities.

4.    Higher Education
Higher education is concerned with the education provided by colleges and universities. Koul said that the goal of higher education in board terms are to seek and cultivative new knowledge, to provide the right kind of leadership in all walks of life, to provide society with competent men and women trained in agriculture, medicine, science, and technology and various other proffesions, and to promote quality and social justice.
The unrest among the students in the universities and colleges, the problem of recruitment of university and college teachers, the controversy of quality versus quantity, development of library facilities, improvement of teaching, the medium of education and so on.

5.    Vocational and Technical Education
Lokes Koul said on his book that Education Commision (1966) has recommended that agriculture and technical education should also form a part of general education. All primary schools including those situated in urban areas should give an agricultural orientation to their programmes. Some agricultural and rural problems should also be introduced in all theacher training programmes. Reasearch, there for, is needed to set up the objectives of vocational and technical education in the light of man-power needs.

6.    Non-formal Education
Non-education includes a variety of programmes such as social education, part-time education, continuing education, orientation and refresher courses, adult-education, extantion service, life-long education, balwadis and anganwadis, non-formal education for 6-14 age group, farmer’s functional literacy for woman, etc.
The non-formal education programmes for children of 6-14 age-group gained momentum only during the last decade when the country accepted non-formal education as an important alternative strategy of education to attain universalisation of education.

7.    Open and Distance Education
In the last four decade, there has been a phenomenal growth of distance education all over the world. It has been recognized as a viable alternative to conventional formal education system to increase accessibility, to achive equity and to help continuing education. Again and again Lokes Koul try to describe about the research in India. He said that in India, the distance education started taking roots in the mid-seventies when a large number of universities started institutes for correspondence courses.
Beside that, Koul also explained that there’s an urgent need to identify academic, professional and vocational courses at the higher education level keeping in view the needs of various target groups including deprived section of the society with the help of comprehensive survey studies. According to his mind, experimental and follow up studies may also be undertaken for the development of course material and their efficacy for the distance lerners at the school and higher education levels.

In this chapter two, Lokesh Koul also described about the priority areas of educational research. He said that educational research in India, is of fairly recent origin and it is still in its infancy. It is because the fact that the study of education as a subject at the univeristy stage did not begin seriously until the forties. Though the quantity of research work at the Master’s and Doctoral levels has increased significantly over the years since independence, its quality has remained poor or mediocre.
Then Koul explain that the third and fourth surveys of research in education (Buch, 1987 and 1991) and and Educational Research and Innovation Committee of the National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi, have suggested some priority areas in educational research keeping in view the National Policy of Education.   

Chapter 3 : The Research Problem and Preparation of the Research Proposal
According to Lokesh Koul on his book, the first step in the research process is the choice of a suitable problem for investigation. In each field of area of educational research, several problems exist which may have reference to the pure, applied, or action research. The identification of a research problem is a difficult but an important phase of the entire research process.
      Knowing the field
it is first necessary for a researchers to choose a broad field within which he will conduct the study. A through understanding of the known facts and ideas in the field or area in which the researcher is interests constitutes the first and most important step in selecting problem for study.

      Selection of the Problem
After selecting of the broad area, the researcher must narrow it down to highly spesific research problem. It is not possible to list all the educational problems that need to be researched.

Definition and Statement of the Problem             
On his book, Lokesh Koul stated the definition of problem according to Whitney (1964), that is “problem means to put a fence around it, to separate it by careful distictions from like questions found in related situations of need”.
In the formal definition of the problem, the reasearcher is required to describe the backround of the study, its theoretical basis and underlying assumptions, and state the problem in concrete, spesific, and workable questions. The first step is to specify the variables involved in the problem and define them in operational terms. Koul said in this study, the researcher might choose to define “effectiveness” as the improvement made by the students in scores on a standardized criterion test. The problem should be stated in such a way that it indicates a relationship between two or more variables. 

Evaluation of the Problem
1.    Is the problem researchabel?
There are certain problems that may not be effectively solved through the process of research. The point that is being emphasized here is that the problem must be stated in workable research questions that can be answered empirically.
2.    Is the problem new?
Lokes Koul said that to avoid such duplication, it is essential to examine very carefully the record of previous studies completed in one’s field. The researcher should not select a problem until he is convinced that it is really a new problem and has not been investigate so far.
3.    Is the problem significant?
The question of the significance of the problem usually relates to what a researcher hopes to accomplish in a particular study. The researcher should show that the study is likely to fill the gaps in the existing knowledge, to help resolve some of the inconsistencies in previous research.
4.    Is the problem feasible for the particular researcher?
According to Lokesh Koul’s mind, a problem may be a good one from the point of view of the three criteria mentioned earlier, yet it may not be feasible in view of some of the personal aspects of a researcher discussed below :
·         Research competencies
·         Interest and enthusiasm
·         Financial considerations
·         Time requirements
·         Administrative considerations

The Hypotheses
Lokesh Koul stated that hypotheses is a powerful tool in research process to achieve dependable knowledge. It helps the researcher to relate theory to observation and observation to theory. Hypotheses are formulated only as the suggested sollution to the problem, with the objective that the ensuing study may lead either to its rejection or to its retention. The importance of hypotheses may be summarized as under :
·         Hypotheses facilitate the extension of knowledge in an area
·         Hypotheses provide the researcher with rational statements
·         Hypotheses provide direction to the research
·         Hypotheses provide the basis for reporting the conclusions of the study
However, there are certain necessary conditions that are conducive to their formulation. Some of them are:
·         Richness of backround knowledge
·         Versatility of intellect
·         Analogy and other practices
And then Lokesh Koul try to describe the suggestions criteria to which should conform in hypotheses according to Travers (1978):
·         Hypotheses should be clearly and precisely stated
·         Hypotheses should be testable
·         Hypotheses should state the expected relationship between variables
·         Hypotheses should be limited in scope
·         Hypotheses should be consistent with most known facts
·         Hypotheses should be stated as for as possible in simple terms
·         The hypotheses selected should be amenable to testing within a reasonable time

The Research Proposal and Synopsis
After the formulation of hypotheses, the researcher should write out proposal, synopsis, or plan for research including a statement of the problem and hypotheses, the research procedures, the sample to be selected and the tools to be selected or developed for the sellection of data. The research proposal is a systematic plan, which brings to focus the preliminary planning that will be needed to accomplish the purpose of the proposed study.
Koul explained that there are certain specifications that are essential to good reserach and therefore, all such specifications should appear in each plan. A worthwhile reasecarh study  is likely to result only from a carefully planned and well designed proposal.  
Procedures for Collecting Data
1.   Sampling
          In research situations, the researcher usually comes across managable populations, where in large numbers are involved. The researcher should be well informed about the scope and limitations of each one of these sampling methods before he thinks of his own sample in the study.
2.    Tools
          In other to collect evidence or data for a study, the researcher has to make use of certain testing and non-testing tools such as intelligence tests, aptitude tests, achievement tests, personality inventory, observation, interview, questionaire, rating scales, etc. The research proposal should explain the reasons for selecting a particular tool or tools for collecting data.

Chapter 4 : Review of the Related Literature
Purpose of the Review           
              Lokesh Koul on his book said that review of the related literature, besides, allowing the researcher to acquaint himself with current knowledge in the field or area in which he is going to conduct his research, serves the following the spesific purpose:
·  The review of the related literature unables the researcher to define the limits of his field
·   By reviewing the related literature, the researcher can avoid infruitful and useless problem areas
·  Through the review of related literature, the researcher can avoid unintentional duplication of well established findings
·  The review of related literature gives the researcher an understanding of the research methodology
·  The final and important spesific reason for reviewing the related literature is to know about the recomendations of previous researchers listed in their studies for further research.

Identification of the related literature
          According to Lokesh Koul, the first step in reviewing the related literature is the identification of the material that is to be read and evaluated. In the primary sources of information, the author reports his own work directly in the form of research articles, books, monographs, dissertations or theses. While in secondary sources, the author compiles and summerises the findings of the works done by others and give interpretation of these findings.
          The decision concernings the use of primary or secondary sources depends largely on the nature of the research study proposed by the researcher.
                 Koul tried to described about all the locating sources of information. He said that a researcher should be familiar with the library and its many facilities and services. He should also be acquainted with the regulations governing the use and circulation of materials. Research scholars and other readers are usually issued a library card giving them access to the stacks.

Organizing the Related Literatur
            koul said in this part that after making the comprehensive survey of the related literature, the next step for the researcher is to organize the pertinent information in a systematic manner. The organization of the related literature involves recording the essential reference material and arranging it according to the proposed outline of the study. 
Chapter 5 : Data Collection
Lokesh Koul tried to describe this chapter into two major sections. The first section deals with the definitions of population and sample and the steps involved in the process of sampling. It also describes various methods of sampling.

according to Lokesh Koul, sampling is the process by which a relatively small number of individuals or a measures of individuals, objects or events is selected and analysed in other to find out something about the entire population from which it was selected. Usually four steps are involved in the process :
1)     Defining the population
A population refers to any collection of specified group of human beings or of non-human entities such as objects, educational institutiuons, time units and geographical areas. The population is properly defined so that there is no ambiguity as to wheter a given unit belongs to the population.
2)     Listing the population
In order to select a sample from a given population, it is also necessary to have a complete, accurate and up to date list of all the units in the population. Such a list is known as a sampling frame.
3.      Selecting a representative sample
Koul said afterdefining a population and listing all the units, a researcher lects a sample of units from the sampling frame. The process of such selection is called sampling.
4.      Obtaining the adequate sample
If the population under study is homogeneous, a small sample is cient. On other hand, a much large sample is necessary if there’s greater variability in the units of the population.

Methods of Sampling
            According to Lokesh Koul, sampling methods can be classified into two broads categories, they are non-probability sampling and probability sampling.
1.    Non-probability sampling
     Koul said that in non-probability sampling, the units are selected at the discretion of the researcher. Such samples use human judgment in selecting units and have no theoretical basis for estimating population characteristics. The non-probability sampling methods are very convenient in the situations when the sample to be selected is very small and research wants to get some idea of the population characteristics in a short time.

2.    Probability sampling
     In probability sampling, Lokesh Koul explained that the units of the population are not selected the discretion of the researcher, but by means of certain procedures which ensure that every unit of a population has one fixed probability of being included in the sample.

Data-Gathering Tools
            In this part, Lokesh Koul tried to explain about how to gather the data using tools. According to him, a researcher will require many data-gathering tools or techniques which may vary in their complexity, design, administration and interpretation. The major data-gathering tools of research may be classified broad into the following categories :
1.    Psychological Tests
          Psychological tests are among the most useful tools of educational research.the have been devised to evaluate or measure behavior in standardized way for the purpose of selection, clasification, prediction and guidance as well as for the evaluation of educational programme.
          Koul said that there are some general principles and procedures which one has to follow which constructing a test, they are planning, preliminary draft, the try out, item analysis and final draft.
          Psychological tests may be classified in many ways. One distiction is made between power tests and timed or speed tests. A further distiction can be made between paper-pencil test and performance test. Two other classes of tests are non-standardized teacher-made tests and standardized tests. Tests also can be classified in terms of their purposes, that is, the types of psychological traits that they describe and claim to measure.
2.    Inquiry Forms   
          Inquiry forms are a set of data-gathering research tools which make use of poperly designed performas for inquiring into and securing information about certain phenomena under investigation. Lokesh Koul said the tools included in this category are questionnaire, schedule, checklist, rating, scale, score card and opinionnaire or attitude scale.
3.    Observation
          Observation is the process in which one or more persons observe what is occuring in some real-life situation, and they classify and record pertinent in happenings according to some planned scheme. As a good research too, observation needs proper planning, expert execution and adequate recording and enterpretation.
          The recording of the observation data may either be simultaneous or soon after the observation. In viewing, classifying and recording behavior, the observer must utmost care to minimize the influance of his biases, attitudes and values on the observation report.
               Koul explained, to rating scales and checklists, the direct observation makes use of anecdotes, time sampling method, incident sampling method and controlled diary method.
               On this part of Lokesh Koul book, he stated the statement or opinion of Brandt (1972) about three kinds of reliability in observational measurement. First is revealed by the ammount of inter-observer agreement in records of the same behavior. A second kind of reliability has to do with the inconsistencies of a single observer from one time to another. And the third kind of reliability is concerned with the estimate of the variability of the trait itself.
               Koul said that the observational measurement can be valid only to extent that recorded differences in score represent actual differences in behaviour rather than differences in the impressions made on different observers.
4.    Interview
          Lokesh Koul stated that the interview is a process of communication or interaction in which the object or interview gives the needed information verbally in a face to face situation. For the purpose of research, interview may be used as a tool for gathering data required by the researcher to test hypotheses or solve his problems of historical, experimental, survey or clinical type of research. In clinical work, social workers and psychiatrists use interview to secure information about an individual’s problems, his past history, job or family adjustment.
          Koul also explained the techniques of interviewing on this part of his book, they are : preparation for the interview, conduting the interview and recording the interview. These technique deal with preparation for the interview, conduct of the interview and recording the data.
5.    Sociometric Techniques
          In term sociometry is defined as the measurement of the social relationship that exists among the members of the group. Koul stated that sociometric techniqus attempt to describe attractions or repulsions between group members by asing them to indicate whom they would select or reject in various situations.
          Numerous sociometric techniques are used to measure social interaction within groups, sociogram, sociometric matrices, Guess-who technique and social distance scale are most frequently used in educational research.

Types of Data   
            The data collected from various sources through the use of different tools and generally comprise of numerical figures, ratings, descriptive narrations, responses to open-ended question, quotations, field notes etc. In aducational research, Lokesh Koul said that there are usually two types of data are recognized. They are quantitative data and qualitative data.
1.    Quantitative Data
          Lokesh Koul explained that quantitative data are got by applying various scales of measurement. The experiences of people are fit into standardised responses to which numerical values are attached. The quantitative data are either parametric or non parametric. Parametric data are measured data on interval or ratio scales of measurement. Non-parametric data are obtained by applying nominal or ordinal scales of measurement.
2.    Qualitative Data
          Qualitative data are verbal or other symbolic materials. The detailed descriptions of observed behaviours, people, situations and events are some examples of qualitative data. The responses to open-ended questions of a questionnaire or a schedule, first hand information from people about their experiences, ideas, beliefs, etc., and selected content or excerpts from documents, case histories, personal diaries and letters are other examples of qualitative data.

Chapter 6 : Qualitative Data Analysis
On this chapter Lokesh Koul tried to described the various techniques which produce data of qualitative nature and discusses various methods which are used in the analysis of qualitative data and their interpretation.

      Organization of Qualitative Data
The qualitative data gathered using open-ended qustionnaire, participant observation and in-dept interview are voluminous. They need to be organized and classified into spesific patterns, categories, and descriptive units to avoid any chaos. According to Lokesh koul’s mind, actual classification or organization can began only after the copies made. There are no formal or universal rules which are the researcher may follow in organizing the data in various units, patterns or categories.

Analysis and Interpretation on Qualitative Data          
          Analysis of qualitative data means studying the organized material in other to discover inherent facts. These data are studied from as many angles as possible either to explore the new facts or to reinterpret already known existing facts. The contents analysis, inductive analysis and logical analysis are most used in analysis of qualitative material.
          Lokesh Koul described about the contents analysis here. He said that the steps in content analysis are defining the unit of analysis, specifying variables and categories, frequency, direction and intensity, contingency analysis, sampling, constructing the content analysis outline and how the mechanics of coding.
          After contents analysis, there is an inductive analysis. Inductive analysis means that patterns, themes and categories of analysis emerge out of the data. The patterns in qualitative data are converted into meaningful categories.
          And the last that the most used in analysis of qualitative material is logical analysis.logical analysis aims at creating potential categories in crossing one typology with another, and then moving back and forth between the logical construction and the actual data for creating a “new typology” using cross-classification matrices. Koul said the researcher must be extremely careful in using this kind of analysis. He should be sensitive to interpreting the possibility of a category of activity or behaviour that has either been overlooked in the data.

Validation of Qualitative Analysis
          Lokesh Koul explained that in this section is concerned with the major strategies that are helpful for validating and ferifying the results of qualitative analysis. In this part, Lokesh Koul stated the statement of Patton (1982) which said that he has listed the following seven major strategies for validation of results :
1.    Rival Explanations
          Once the researcher after qualitative analysis has describes the patterns and their explanations, it is important to look for rival or competing themes and explanations both inductively and logically. Inductively it impplies looking for other ways of organizing the data that might lead to defferent results. Logically it involves searching for other logical possibilities and then finding if those possibilities can be supported by the data.
2.    Negative Cases
The search for negative cases and instances that do not fit within the identified pattern and their understanding is also important in the verification and validation of results.
3.    Triangulation: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Data
          This type of triangulation aims at comparing data collected through some kind of quantitative methods with data collected through same kind of qualitative methods. It is highly likely that qualitative methods and quantitative methods will eventually lead to different findings and not to a single and well integrated picture of the situation.
4.    Triangulation: Comparing Multiple Qualitative Data Sources
          This type of triangulation according to Koul, involves comparing and cross checking consistency of data derived by different means at different times by using the qualitative methods.
5.    Triangulation: Multiple Perspectives from Multiple Observers
     The aim of this kind of triangulation is to involve triangulating observers or using several interviewers so as to reduce the potential bias or subjectivity as a result of observation by single observer.
6.    Design Checks: Keeping Methods and Data in Context
          The nature of research design and methodology also contribute to distortion in results. Sampling gives rise to three type of errors. The errors may be due to: (1) distortion in the situations that were sampled for the observation; (2) distortion introduced by the time periods during which observations took place; (3) distortion because of selectivity in the people who were sampled either for observation or interviews.
7.    Evaluator Effects
          The presence of researcher during the observation or interview can distort the results of study. The distortion may be due to: (1) reactions of programme participants and others associated with it to the presence of researcher; (2) changes in the researcher during the process of observation or interview; (3) biases of researcher; (4) incompetence of the researcher. The basic objective of qualitative analysis is to provide useful, meaningful and objective answers to the research questions of researchers, decision makers and information users.

Chapter 7 : Quantitative Data Analysis
Lokesh Koul said that in this chapter reflects the following purpose. First, it deals with the organization of quantitative data in terms of editing, classifying and tabulating the information gathered through the administration various tools on the selected sample or samples. Second, it describes certain modes which are helpful in the analysis of the gathered quantitative data. Third, it deals with the various modern computational mechanical aids which are used by redsearchers in performing complex computations with speed and accuracy. Fourth, it describes briefly the language and various elements of a computer system. Fifth, it deals with the factors which the researcher should keep in view while making interpretations, and formulating conclusions and generalisations.

Organization of Quantitative Data
     According to Lokesh koul, organization of data includes editing, classifying and tabulating quantitative information.editing implies checking of the gathered raw data for accuracy, usefulness and completeness. Classification refers to deviding of the data into different categories, classes, groups or heads. Tabulation is the process of transferring classified data from data-gathering tools to the tabular formin which they may be systematically examined.

Analysis of Quantitative Data    
Analysis of data means studying the organized material in other to discover inherent facts. Analysis requires an alert, flexible and open-mind. In this section, Lokesh Koul stated the statement of Good, Barr and Scates (1941). They suggested four helpful modes to get started on analysing the gathered data :
·         To think in terms of significant tables that the data permit
·         To examine carefully the statement of the problem and earlier analysis and to study the original records of the data
·         To get away from the data and to think about the problem in lay man’s terms, or to actually discuss that problems with others.
·         To attack the data by making various statistical calculations
Modern Computational Mechanical Aids 
Modern computational mechanical aids are a boon to the modern researcher. They are used to save time and effort and to minimize error during organizing and analysis of research data. The computational mechanical aids commonly used are “desk calculators” and “digital computers”.
1.    Desk Calculators
Its principal advantages are speed and accuracy in performing addition, substraction, multiplication and devision. The desk calculator provides reliable results. At time improper input of the data or incorrect operation of the machine or both furnish errorneous results. The electro mechanical desk calculators perform the calculations electrically operated mechanical devices called counters. A serious limitation with electro-mechanical and electronic desk calculators is that they require a human operator at every stage of operation. The manifactures of desk calculators usually provide instruction manuals with them for the use of their operators.
2.    Electronic Digital Computers
Koul stated that electronic digital computers have a long history. The history of their development can be traced back to the first mechanical calculator developed by Blaise Pascal in 1642. He developed an automatic calculating instrument and later conceived an even more an automatic mechine, which used punched cards to control and perform complex operations with capability for printing the results.

Language of the Computer
A computer is an ingenious and versatile machine. It can manipulate symbols that represent information, has the ability to remember or store these symbols, and can restore them later. The instructions in the computer are written in a language or code that the computer is able to “read”. A binary code is the most commonly used to code within computers. The binary code differs from the commonly used decimal system. There are various ways for converting binary number to decimal number. The research must understand the binary code to know the working of a computer, but he no longer has to use the binary code when writting programme for the computer.

Elements of a Computer System
 In this part, Lokesh Koul tried to explain the parts of the computer. He said that a computer system consists of psycal equipment called hardware and combination of instruction, called programmes or soft-ware.
1.    Hardware of a Computer System
The essential elements of a computer system with regard to hardware are: input devices, central processing unit, main storage and output devices. Input refers to the tranferring of data from an external storage medium into the internal storage of the computer. Information or data are entered into the computer through the use of card reader, mark sense cards, or optical character readers that translates printed page information to punched cards or magnetic tape. Central processing unit controls and directs the entire of computer system. it also performs the data treatment functions of additional subtractions, multiplication, division, shifting, moving, comparing and storing. The central processing unit consists of the arithmetic or logic unit and the control unit. While main storage of the computer system is that storage which is directly accessible to the central processing unit. The main storage unit of a computer is like a block of post office boxes and the main storage capacity of the computer system must be considered by the researcher in relation to the size of sample, the number of variables and the complexity of the calculations involved in the study. And the last part of the hardware of the computer is output devices. The output unit receives data in machine language from the storage unit and translates it into a language which a human being or a machine can understand.
2.    Software or Programme of the Computer System
A computer system operates in accordance with spesific instructions. Such instruction defines an operation to be performed. It also specifies the data, device, or mechanism needed to carry out the operation. These instructions are reffered to as a programme. A computer is useless until a programmer writes a detailed set of instructions to be loaded into its internal storage (memory) unit.
Interpretation of Results
Lokesh Koul said that once the research data have been collected and the analysis has been made, the researcher can proceed to the stage of interpreting the results. The researcher should keep the following factors in view while making interpretation of the result :
1.    Ignoring Unstudied Factors In Interpretation
In any type of educational research, the researcher is generally guided by the factors or variables which he has studied during the research process. He totally ignores the influence or effects of unstudied factors while interpretating the results of his study.
2.    Ignoring Selective Factors in Interpretation
A researcher may grossly misrepresent the truth if he ignores the selective factors. This is more evidient in the studies where a selective group is made the subject of investigation or where a particular factors operating in the situation studied.
3.    Interpreting Expected Results
While interpreting the expected results, the reseacher has to keep in mind that he does not go beyond his data support and that he does not forget the limitation of the study. the researcher has to be cautious in reporting all such factors which could account for the results.
4.    Interpreting Negative Results
Researcher often on arriving at results contrary to what they had hypothesized jump to develop a sort of defence mechanism by making a cry of all factors that could have possibly vitiated the results. Hypotheses arise out of guess work and can not be accepted as right in the beginning without testing them for confirmation.
5.    Interpreting Results When the Null Hypotheses is Retained
A retained null hypotheses may occure for several reasons :
·         There may be no relationship between the variables; or the experimental variable may not be more effective than the control variable
·         The null-hypotheses is false, but the internal validity problems of data contiminated the investigation so badly that the actual relationship between the variables could not be established
·         The null-hypotheses is false, but the research design lacked the answer to reject it
6.    Interpreting Results When Null Hypotheses is Rejected
If a null hypotheses is rejected and the variables other than the variables under study, that were likely to affect the results were well contolled in the study, the reseacher may say that the behaviour of the variables mentioned in the research hypotheses, which was converted into the null hypotheses for being tested.

7.    Interpreting Unhypothesized Relationships
Lokesh Koul said that any unhypothesized relationship that the researcher may observe during the conduct of a study should not be ignored. It should be recognized and analysed throughly.

Formulation of Conclusions and Generalizations
In the light of the interpretation of data, the researcher has to use all care and caution in formulating his conclusions and generalizations. This final step of research process demands critical and logical thinking in summarizing the findings of the study and compares them with the hypoteses formulated in the beginning.

Chapter 8 : Statistical Methods
Lokesh Koul described in this chapter as follows. The first section deals with definition of term “measurement” and its various levels. The second section describe the procedures of classifying data and their graphical representation. Third major section lists various statistical measures. The fourth section describes the uses of the correlation in the evaluation of reliability and validity of tests. And the fifth and final section lists and describes briefly the limitation of statistical methods.

Measurement and Levels
 Measurement is defined as the assignment of numbers to objects and events according to logically accepted rules. Lokes Koul said that a convenient way of classification of the measurement levels is made by Stevens (1951). According to this classification, there are four levels of measurement scales they are nominal scales, ordinal scales, interval scales, ratio scales

Classification of Data
The educational research, while measuring mental and physical traits, Lokesh Koul gathers data for various attributes or qualities which exhibit differences in magnitude, and which vary along some dimensions.
Test scores or other numbers in continuous series are taken as distances along a continum rather than as discrete points. A centimetre is the linear magnitude between two devisions on a footrule.

Graphic Representation of Data
Graphic representation often facilitates understanding of a set of data. If the graphic is well drawn, it is usually easier to read and interpret data. We shall considere here only those graphs which are useful in visualizing the important properties of frequency distribution.
Koul said that there are four methods of graphic representation of data are in general use, they are:
1.    Histogram or Column Diagram
A histogram or coulumn diagram is a graph is which class intervals are represented along the horizontal axis called x-axis and their corresponding frequencies are represented by areas in the form of rectangular bars drawn on the intervals.
2.    Frequency Polygon
Another method of representing a frequency distribution graphically is what is known as the frequency polygon. The first two steps are identical with those used in the construction of the histogram.
3.    Comulative Frequency Curve
Comulative frequency curve differs from frequency polygon in the respects. First, instead of plotting points corresponding to frequencies, second, instead of plotting ponits above the mid-points of each class, we plot our point above the exact upper limit of the class. This is done because in this graph we wish to presentative the number of cases falling above or below the particular values.
4.    The Cumulative Persentage Curve or Ogive
The cumulative persentage curve or ogive differs from the cumulative frequency curve in that frequencies are expressed as cumulative percents of on the vertical axis instead of as cumulative frequencies

Descriptive Statistical Measures
  Descriptive statistical measure are used to describe the characteristic of sample or popiulation in totality. They limit generalization to the participant group of individuals observed or studied. No conclusions are extend beyond this group. The measures of descriptive statistics most commonly used in educational research are :
1.    Measures of Central Tendency or averages
The three most commonly used measures of central tendency are the means, the median and the mode. The mean of a distribution is commonly understood as the arithmetic average. It is perhaps the most familiar, most frequently used and well understood average. The median is a point in an array, above and below which one-half of the scores fall. It is a measure of position rather than of magnitude. The mode is defined as the most frequently occuring score in a distribution.
2.    Measures of Variability
It is also called a measure of spread or dispersion. There are several measures of variability, but Lokesh Koul here limits the discussion to those that are most useful to a researcher. These include the range, the variance and the standard deviation. The range is the most general and simplest measure of variability. It is defined as the difference between the most extreme scores in a distribution. The variance is the average of the squared deviations of the measures or scores from their mean. While the standard deviation is the positive square root of variance.
3.   Measures of Relative Positions
According to Lokesh Koul, he described that relative position has a comparation that may be done with the help of the following measures, they are sigma scores, standard scores, percentiles and percentile ranks.
4.    Measures of Relationship
When we study bevariate data we may like to know the degree of relationship between variables of such data. This degree of relationship is known as correlation. It can be represented quantitatively by the coefficient of correlation. When the relationship between two sets of variables is a pure-chance relationships, we say no correlation.

Uses of Correlation
According to Lokesh Koul statement, that he said on his book that the coefficient of correlation is used :
·         To evaluate the degree of reliability and validity of psychology tests and inventories
·         In the technique of factor analysis; and
·         To make prediction

Limitations of Statistical Methods
Based on Lokesh Koul Statement on his book, that there are a number of limitations that should be recognized in using statistical methods, and in drawing conclusions from statistical treatment of the data. On this part of chapter, Koul shown the opinion of Best (1977) which has listed them as under :
1.    Statistical process is the servant of logic and only has value if it verifies, clarifies, and measures relationships that have been established by clear and logical analysis.
2.    A statistical process should not be employed in the analysis of data unless the basic assumptions and limitations underlying its uses are clearly understood.
3.    The conclusion derivied from statistical analysis will be no more accurate or valid than the original data.
4.    All treatment of data must be checked and double checked frequently to minimized the likehood of errors in measurements, recording, tabulation and analysis.
5.    There is a constant margin of error wherever measurement by human being is involved.

 Chapter 9 : Inferential Statistics
In this chapter Lokesh Koul explained two major sections. The first section deals with statistical inference based on parametric tests. The second deals with the statistical inference based non-parametric tests.

Statistical Inference Based On Parametric Tests
Koul said that parametric tests are useful and the most powerful tests for testing the significance and trustworthiness of the computed sample statistics. This test should  be used:
·         When the variables described are expressed in interval or ratio scale and not in nominal or ordinal scales of measurement
·         When the population values are normally distributed
·         When the samples have equal or nearly equal variances
·         When the selection of one case in the sample is not dependent upon selection of any other
Analysis of Variance
Koul said that we use Z and t test to determine wheter there is any significant difference between the means of two random samples. The technique of analysis the variance would make it possible to determine if any of the two of the six means differ significantly from each other single test, called F test, rather than 15 t test.
Analysis of variance has certain basic assumptions underlying it, they are:
·         The population distribution should be normal
·         All the groups of a certain criterion or of the combination of more than one criterion should be randomly chosen from the sub-population having the same criterion
·         The sub-groups under investigation should have the same variability 

Statistical Inference Based On Parametric Tests
So far, Lokesh Koul has explained about the statistical inference based on parametric tests, involving the assumptions based upon the nature of the population distribution, and on the type of measurement scale is used to quantify the data or observations. More recently there has been development of another category of lists which do not make numerous or stringent assumptions about the nature of the population distribution. This category is called distribution-free-or-non-parametric-tests.
Non-parametric tests are used when:
·         The nature of the population from which sample are drawn, is known to be normal
·         The variables are expressed in nominal form, that is classified in categories and represented by frequency counts
·         The variables are expressed in ordinal form, that is ranked in order or expressed in numerical scores which have the strength of ranks

Chapter 10 : The Research Report
In this chapter, Lokesh Koul tried to describe the procedure followed in the preparation of the research report. It has four sections. The first section outlines and describes in detail the general format of the research report under three sub-sections : the preliminery section, the body of the report or text and the refernce section. The second section describesbriefly the style and format of writting the research report logically and objectively. The third section describes in detail the procedure which is followed in typing different sections of the research report. The fourth and the final section provides certain hints which are useful in detecting and correcting the typing errors while making proof reading of the final research report.

General Format of the Research Report
Lokesh Koul said that in some universities, research organizations or journal boards have established their own format to which their theses, dissertations or research papers must conform,  but all formats are somewhat similar to the following outline which comprises of three main sections :
1.    Preliminery section
·         Title page
·         Preface, including acknowledgments (if necessary)
·         Table of contents
·         List of tables
·         List of figures, maps or illustration (if any)
2.    Body of the report or text including :
·         Introduction (statement of the problem, analysis of the previous research, relation of present problem to the theoretical position of the previous research, significance of the problem, delimitations of the study, assumptions underlying hypotheses, statement of hypotheses and definition of the important terms)
·         Design of the study
·         Analysis and interpretation of the data
·         Summary and conclusions
3.    Reference section
4.    Preliminery section

Style and Format of Writing
1.    Language
Koul said that the presentation of the research report should be creative, logical and concise making use of simple common words and sentence structure whenever possible. Its language should be formal and straight forward avoiding slang, proverbial or discourtegous phrases. The researcher should make use of a handbook of style, a good dictionary and a spelling guide. The present tense used be used when the researcher is reffrering the readers to the tables and charts that are presently before him and when he is presenting general truths and well- established principles.
Typing of The Research Report
In this part, Lokesh Koul tried to explain and viewed about how the right way to typing the research report. He said it is the responsibility of the researcher to present manuscript material to the proffesional typist in proper form. A well and acurrately typed report makes its presentation interesting and meaningful to the reader. The following are some rules which should be followed while typing the research reports :
1.    General Rules for Typing Research Report
According to Lokesh Koul, these are the general rules for typing research report:
·         A white bond paper of 8,5 by 11 inches size of 13 to 16 pound weight should be used for the original and first carbon copy of the thesis or dissertation
·         Material should be type on one side of the paper
·         A typewriter with large type should be preffered
·         Use a non-greasy, fresh and black and carbon paper
·         The right margin should be one inches
2.    Rules for typing different sections of research report
·         Title page. The title should be typed in capital letters beginning in six spaces from the top of the pages
·         Preface or acknowledgment page
·         Table of contents

Proof Reading of The Final Draft of The Research Report
When the final typed copy of the report completed, it is necessary to proof read each page carefully. The typing errors are best detected by proof reading each line from right to left. The correction should always be made by typewriter and not in ink. It is advisable to retype the page if there are more than one or two corrections. Mathematical and some other special symbols are not available on the typewriter.

Chapter 11 : Methods of Educational Research
Lokesh koul described and explained just two sections in this chapter. The first section deals briefly with the importance of research methods and their classification into three basic categories : historical method, descriptive method and experimental method. The second section describes in detail the historical method with emphasis with the following aspects : nature of historical research, value of historical method in education, types of historical research and steps in historical research.

The Importance Of Research Methods
Research methods are of utmost importance in a research process. Methods of research, Lokesh Koul viewed the expert’s opinion (Good, Barr and Scates) may be classified from many points of view. A researcher must have a through understanding of all research methods with particular reference to their strengths, limitations and appropriateness. It will help him to carefully plan the steps he will take in the research process and describe the method clearly before he actually starts working on the solution of the problem.

The Historical Method
History is a meaningful and an organised record of past events. It is not merely a list of events arranged chronologically, but a valid integrated account of social, cultural, economic and political forces that had operated simultineously to produce a historical event.
Historical research, as any other type of research, includes the delimitation of a problem and other, however, the historian faces greater difficulties than researchers in any other field. The job of the historian becomes more complicated when he derives truth from historical evidence. Historical research has great value in the field of educational research because it is necessary to know and undertstand educational achievements and trends of the past in order to gain perspective on present and future predictions.

Types of Historical Research
According to Lokesh Koul, historical studies that could be conducted with profit to the field of education may include the following:
1.    Bibliographic research. Bibliographic research aims at determining and presenting truthfully the importance facts about the life, characters and achievements of important educators.
2.    Legal research
Legal research is of immense value and interest to educational administrators. It aims to study the legal basis of educational institutions run by different religions and castes, relation between central and state governments with regard to education etc.
3.    Studying the history of ideas
It involves the tracing of major philosophical and scientific thoughts from their origins through their different stages of development.
4.    Studying the history of institutions and organizations
It also provide numerous problems for significant historical research. When studying such history, the same general method applies as for the study of an educator’s life.

Steps in Historical Research
While the steps in historical research in generally accroding to Koul involved the following steps:
1.    Selection of the problem
He may delimit his study to an era of events in a local, regional or national testing, or he may study the trend of events in different areas, societies, or different cultures. He should check that the problem detected should not only be of historical and current significant, but answerable by available methods of research and by the available sources data.
2.    Formulation of hypotheses
The hypotheses for historical research may not be formal hypotheses to be tested, rather, they are written as explicit statements that tentatively explain the occurence of events and conditions. While formulating hypotheses, a researcher may formulate questions that are most appropriate for the past events he is investigating and then directs his research towards seeking answer to these questions with the help of evidence.
3.    Collection of data
After the problem has been detected and stated and appropriate hypotheses or questions have been formulated, the researcher have to collect all the data available so that the hypothese may be throughly verified. These data can be classified into primary and secondary sources.
The primary sources are eye witness accounts and are the only solid bases of historical enquiry. We can get these data from personal records, official records, oral testimony of traditions and events, pictorial records, mechanical records and remains or relics.
The secondary sources are accounts of an event provided by a person who did not directly observe the event, object, or condition. The person may have directly contacted an actual observer and talked with him or read an account by an observer. Secondary sources, if used carefully, serve many useful purposes. 
4.    Criticism of data
After the data have been identified, the researcher must learn to read them correctly as a basis for developing sound ideas of the past, which in turn may help in interpreting present trends and possibly in predicting future events. The process of establishing authenticity of the data is termed as external criticism and internal criticism. External criticism is also called as lower criticism. It helps to determine whether it is what it appears or claims to be and whether it reads true to be original so as to save the researcher from being the victim of a fraud. While the internal criticism is positive in nature when the researcher seeks to disciver the literal and the real menaing of the text. It is negative when the researcher tries to seek every possible reason for disbelieving the statement made etc
5.    Interpretation and reporting of findings
After the data have been collected and criticized, the researcher turns himself to the task of interpretation of these data in the light of his problem. The researcher in historical type of investigation must be very cautious while dealing with “cause and effect” relationships. The historical researcher must also very cautious in his use of analogy in the interpretation of data. The ultimate goal in the historical type of research is not only to establish facts but also to determine trends which the data may suggest and to draw inferences from the data.
6.    Writing of the research report
The writing of historical research report needs the highest level of relationship on the part of the researcher. The researcher must be elegant and objective in his style of writing the research report. The historical report must be presented in the logical , chronological and topical order. Reports of historical research should neither be dull and unattractive nor too flowery and ornamental. They must follow precision, continuity, clarity and dignity in their style to give a sense of design and completeness.

Chapter 12 : The Descriptive Method
Lokesh Koul devided this chapter into three sections. The first section deals with the nature of descriptive research. The second section describes briefly the value of descriptive research in education. The third section is devided into four subsections that describe in detail the four categories of descriptive research.

Nature of Descriptive Research
Lokesh Koul on this part tried to describe what actually the nature of descriptive research and for what. He said that descriptive research studies are designed to obtain pertinent and precise information concerning the current status of phenomena and whenever possible to draw valid general conclusions from the facts discovered. Descriptive studies are more than just a collection of data, but they involoved measurement, classification and analysis, comparison and interpretation. Descriptive studies investigate phenomena in their natural setting. Their purpose is both immediate and long range. It also differs from other types of research in purpose and type. Lokesh Koul also said that descriptive studies vary greatly in complexity. At one extreme, they constitute nothing more than frequency count of events to the study of local problems without any significant research purpose. At the other extreme, they temp to ascertain significant interrelationships among phenomena.

Value of Descriptive Research in Education
The descriptive research in education helps to explain the educational phenomena in terms of the conditions or relationships that exist, opinions that are held by the students, teachers, parents and experts. The descriptive investigations are of immense value in solving problems about children, school organizations, supervision and administration, curriculum, teaching methods and evaluation.
The problems in education directly involve people and the situations precipitating these problems are constantly in a stage of change. The descriptive type of research is useful in the development of data gathering instruments and tools like checklists, schedules, questionnaires and rating scales.

Types of descriptive Research
Lokesh koul explained three types of descriptive studies, they are:
1.   Survey Studies
Survey studies are conducted to collect detailed descriptions of existing phenomena with the intent of employing data to justify current conditions and practices or to make more intelligent plans for improving them. Survey studies may take different forms depending upon the scope, nature and purpose of the problem under investigation. They may be broad or narrow in scope. Survey studies describe and specify the properties of educational phenomena. They include school surveys, job analysis, public opinion surveys, and social surveys.
2.   Interrelationship Studies
The studies that endeavour to discover relationship between various facts of the existing phenomena are called as interrelationships studies. These include case studies, causal-comparative studies, correlation and prediction studies, cross cultural and comparative studies.
3.   Developmental Sudies  
Developmental studies are used for investigating the characteristics children and the ways in which this characteristics change with growth and development. Developmental studies are also called as genetic studies. The genetic or developmental studies may take three different forms-growth studies, follow up studies and trend studies.

Steps in Descriptive Research
The process of descriptive studies is not different from other forms of research. According to Lokesh Koul, the reseacrher may addopt the following steps:
1.    Selection of the problem
2.   Statement and definition of the problem
The statement must identify the variables involved in the study. It should specify clearly whether the study is merely seeking to determine the present status of these variables or whether it will also explore relationships between the variables
3.   Identification of data
A researcher has to specify whether the data are qualitative or a quantitative nature and whether the data will be collected in the form of counts, test scores, responses to questionnaires etc
4.   Selection or development of tools
5.   Selection of the sample
6.   Collection of data
7.   Analysis and interpretation of data
8.   Writing of the research report   

Chapter 13 : Experimental Method
On this chapter Lokesh Koul described five sections. The first section describe in detail the nature of experimental research. The second section which is quite brief, deals with the value of experimental research in education. The third section describes the steps which the researcher may adopt in conducting experimental research. The fourth section describe in detail the nature of experimental designs. And the fifth or final section deals with different types of experimental designs.

Nature of Experimental Research
In descriptive research, Lokesh Koul said a researcher may analyse the data he has collected and discovers that different variables are related. Experimental method, on the other hand, provides for mush control and therefore, establishes a systematic and logical association between manipulated factors and observed effects.
According to Lokesh Koul, there are four essential characteristics of experimental research as the following :
1.   Control
Control is the essential ingredient of experimental methods. In this part, Koul viewed the opinion of Van Dalen (1973) about the purpose of a researcher in controlling variables, they are achieving isolation, achieving changes in magnitude, and achieving quantitative evaluation. Lokesh koul stated that there are two types in methods of control, they are methods for controlling inter-subject differences and methods for controlling situational variables.
2.   Manipulation
 Manipulation of a variable is another distinguising characteristic of experimental research. It refers to a deliberate operation of the condition by the researcher.
3.   Observation
In the experimental research, the researcher studies the effect of the manipulation of the independent variable on a dependent variable.
4.   Replication
Replication is a matter of conducting a number of sub-experiments within a framework of an overall experimental design. The researcher, instead of comparing a single control case with a single experimental case, makes a multiple comparison of a number of cases of the control group, all within the same experimental framework.

Value of Experimental Research in Education
 Experimental research is used to determine and evaluate the eduquacy and effectiveness of the educational and instructional objectives through the measurement of their outcomes. After evaluating the afficacy of objectives, the suggestions are made for the formulation, execution and modification of the eduactional programmes and classroom practices.

Steps in Experimental Research
Lokesh Koul said that the steps of the experimental methods are not different from those of a scientific methods. For the sake of clarification, the major steps may be described as under :
1.    Survey the literature relating to the problem
2.    Selecting and defining the problem
3.    Stating of hypotheses
4.    Constructing the experimental plan

Experimental Designs
Lokesh Koul explained in this section that there are three important criteria which the researcher must keep in mind while selecting an experimental design for conducting his experiment.
1.    Appropriateness
This is the most important criterion is that the design should be appropriate for testing the hypotheses of the study.
2.    Adequacy of Control
The adequate control of extranous variables helps the researcher to get dependable answers to the questions raised by the hypotheses of the study.

3.    Validity
Campbell and Stanley (1963) have suggested that there are two general types of validity : internal and external.
4.    Some Terms and Symbols
·         Experimenter
·         Subjects
·         Independent variable
·         Dependent variable
·         Control group
·         Experimental group
·         Pre-test
·         Post-test

Types of Experimental Designs
Lokesh Koul stated in this section that there are various types of experimental designs. They vary in complexity and adequacy. Although the designs can be combined into various ways, they are broadly classified as under :
1.    Pre-Experimental Designs
Pre-experimental designs provide little or no control of extranous of situation variables. There are two types of pre-experimental designs :
·         Design 1 : one group pre-test post-test design.
·         Design 2 : two group, static design
2.    True Experimental Design
True experimental design are mostly used for experimental research in education because they seek to control the main effects of history, maturation, testing, measuring instruments, statistical regression, selection, and mortality. The experimental designs can be classified into four types, they are :
·         Design 3 : two groups, randomized subjects, post-test-only design
·         Design 4 : two groups, randomized matched subjects, post-test-only design
·         Design 5 : randomized groups, pre-test-post-test design
·         Design 6 : the randomized solomon three-groups design
·         Design 7 : the randomized solomon four-groups design

3.    Factorial Designs
A factorial design enables the experimenter to evaluate or two or more variables simultaneously in order to study the effects of number of independent factors singly as well as the effects due to interactions with one another.
The factorial designs can be cassified into one type, there is :
·         Design 8 : simple factorial design
4.    Quasi – experimental designs
Quasi experimental design provides as much control as possible under the existing conditions. Some of the important quasi - experimental design are discussed as under :
·         Design 9 : non-randomized control group, pretest-posttest design
·         Design 10 : counterbalanced design
·         Design 11 : one-group time-series design

Knowledge of research methodology is essensial for those who either play an active role in the conduct of research or desire to keep themselves abreast of the new developments in the existing knowledge.
Lokesh Koul in his third edition book with the title “Methodology of Educational Research” containing an up to date account of the methods and techniques suited to the field of education, Lokesh Koul as an author provides an understanding of significant educational problems that need to be tackled. It also discusses the steps that the researcher is expected to take for conducting a research study. Priority areas of educational research in India in the context of National Educational Policy (1986) and its programme of action (1992) and Survey of Research in Education are also provided.
This book that have written by Lokesh Koul I think have given the most effect for educational especially in methodoly of education. He provided much theory and research straight in India and the data I think was really accurate because he is also a proffesional researcher. According to my mind, Lokesh Koul is a great author, he took his Ph. D. From the Kurukshetra University and presently, he is working as a proffesor, Head and Dean, Faculty of Education and Dean of Studies and Academic Affairs of Himachal Pradesh University. Beside that he is also a member of the Distance Education Council and a Consultant, Commonwealth Higher Education Management Service, London. Many of Lokesh Koul’s book is really used for many countries and part of education. He is a good author. He has been contributing research paper to various international journals and has been associated with project Himachal Pradesh.
Reviewing the research studies on Distance Education in India, Prof Lokesh Koul made a very significant observation that “barring a couple of studies, the researches did not show any qualitative trend with respect to the theory and practice of distance education”. He points out the lack of region-specific, target-specific type of researches. “Studies are based on arbitrary combinations of variables relating psychology, economics, sociology, pedagogy, media, management, etc. without taking into consideration their implications for the clientele and catchment area, thus lacking long-range perspective andrelevance to future planning of distance education programmes”.
While pointing towards the future research priorities in India, Prof Koul rightly foreses that by 2025, with an approximate population of 130-140 crores, India will present an extremely diverse scenario where, “The degree and level of education varies from place to place, depending on the nearness or accessibility of a village to urban centres, the rate of literacy, the quality of local leadership; the traditional roots and attitude towards modernization; communication network and exposure to the outside world; basic economic problems as a result of poverty, and the interaction at the socio-economic levels. In this context, the education system requires to handle large numbers and be accessible to people at large especially at the bottom of the ‘socioeconomic pyramid’.
Well, beside Lokesh Koul tried to describe the Indian research, the book also content the complete of whole methodology of educational research, started with the introduction of what is the methods of acquiring the knowledges, areas of educational research, the research problem and preparation of the research proposal until finally he also explained about the experimental methods.
 This book seeks to give a comprehensive overview of methods used in educational research. The book presents itself as being well updated, expanded, and revised, with the inclusion of recent literature, examples, and illustrations. The book is well-grounded in theory and explains the theoretical context comprehensively. What makes this book particularly useful is the extensive use of illustrations and examples, making the material easily applicable to one’s own context and conveys what are difficult concepts to comprehend in an easily understandable fashion. Added to this is the easy-to-read style of writing used in the book, explaining concepts in a systematic, step by step manner, and encouraging the reader to continue.
Well, overall this book is really good to be read and to learn of course. But above all the good things that I have explained above, there is a weakness that I see in this book. The weakness is the author did not explain yet about how to write the proposal, as how as we know that in the educational research we need to write a proposal.

Based on the explanations above, I think this book is really useful for those people who really interest in education, a researcher or student maybe because it is content a complete explanation and easy to use. The language also easy to understand.
The author is objective in writing this book. He explained basic on the research he has made and also explained and viewed the other experts’s opinions and I think he has achieved his goal in writing this book.
Basic on the sentence that i have explained above about Lokesh Koul book’s weakness, I suggest to the author in his next edition to add a section which will explain about the proposal so that the reader can understand more about the educational research.
Well, overall and finally I have to say that this book is very useful for every people who read it. And me as the reviewer will suggest this book to my friends because this book is truly wonderful.

Koul, Lokesh. 1997. Methodology of Educational Research. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.



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