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Saturday, August 10, 2013

Contoh Jurnal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas


ENHANCE THE STUDENT’S LEARNING ACTIVITY AND STUDY RESULT THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION
OF LEARNING CYCLE MODEL IN SMA NEGERI 2
 BANDAR SIMALUNGUN 2013

Susi Susanti Tindaon1
Dede Ruslan2
Economics Faculty State University of Medan

Abstract. The purpose of this research is to enhance the student’s learning activity and study result by applying the Implementation of Learning Cycle Model in subject material “preparing the financial statements of service companies. The kind of this research is classroom action research. The subject of this research is 3rd Social Science Grade 11th with 32 students. The object research is the Learning Cycle Model. The research instrument is the test namely the objective test and observation sheet. Based on the result, gained the average of study result in pretest with the average value is 48.41. Whereas in first posttest by applying the Learning cycle Model had enhanced 17.79 being 66.2. In the second cycle have enhanced 14 or 21.1% to the average value being 80.2. And based on the learning activity have enhanced from 0 (0%) people in very good learning activity category, 8 people (25%) are good category, 17 people (53.1%) are good enough category, and 7 people (21.9%) enhanced being 10 people (31.3%) in very good activity category, 17 people (53.1%) in good category, 5 people (15.6%) in good enough category, 0 people (0 %) in not good category the first to second cycle.
To try the significance of learning activity and study result in first and second cycle, it is used t-test, and the calculation gained tcount = 3.09. The calculation ttable = 2.00. By comparing the tcount and ttable it is gained tcount > ttable namely 3.09 > 2.00. Thus, the study result of accounting subject in the first post test at first cycle and second post test in second cycle is significance. The calculation ttable for learning activity is 5.09. The calculation ttable = 2.00. By comparing the tcount  and ttable  it is gained that tcount > ttable namely 5.09 > 2.00. So that the learning activity in first post test at first cycle and second post test   second cycle is significance also

                         Key words:  learning activity, study result of accounting subject, the learning cycle model, classroom action research.

INTRODUCTION
The field of education is one of  the very important field and needs a special attention from all walks of life because education has a vital role to develop the human resource that play a role in the formation of students to be assets of the nation's expected to become productive human. This is in accordance with the National Education Goal in the Act No. 20 chapter 3 in 2003.
To achieve a good education quality certainly can not be separated from teaching and learning activity as the main activity in the school. Maryono and Trisngati (2011) expressed that it can not be denied that the teaching and learning process in the classroom appeared tending to be passive, the learning is more focused on the teachers and students still depend on the teachers, it can be seen from the tendencing of most teachers which active in talking in front of the class so the students get boring, sleepy and annoying the other students. Beside that, the choice and utilisation of learning models is also has an important role because until now there are many students that are less encouraged in studying because the teachers use the traditional or convensional learning model.
In achieving the goals of National Education and improving the quality of education, certainly the teaching and learning process is quite determine which involve teachers and students. Uno and Mohamad (2011:198) stated that “there are several factors which influence the effectiveness of student’s learning, namely the internal factors that consist of physiological aspects and psychological aspects”. In the process of teaching and learning, the activeness of learners is very important and should be noted by educators so that the learning process will be completely obtaining the optimal results.
Based on the observation conducted by the researcher in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun, the researcher has been obtained the information that the teaching and learning activities as well as the study result of accounting subject tend to be low. The activities of teacher still tend to dominate the learning activities so that students take on the subject material from the teacher and waiting for an explanation from the teacher without trying to look and find it by themselves by reading or analysing, they lacked of courage in expressing their opinion, afraid to ask teacher and friends about the subject material which they do not understand so that there is no reciprocal reaction from students. Beside that, the teaching methods of teacher is less creative and just occurred in one direction, namely is the conventional methods or merely lecturing. That case proven by the data of students’s accounting study result in 3rd  Social  Science Grade 11th by the three daily tests, found that out of 32 students only 16 students (50%) on the first daily test, 14 students (43,8%) in the second daily test and 12 students (37,5%) in the third daily test stated who achieve the minimum completeness criteria set by the school namely 65
Learning Cycle is one of the learning model of student centered learning. Through some investigation conducted by the researcher, this learning model is never implemented yet in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun especially in accounting subject. This learning model suggests that the learning process can involve the students in active learning so that there are process of assimilation, accommodation, and organization in the cognitive structure of students. If construction process of knowledge occurs well so learner will be able to increase their understanding to the topic studied.
Based on the background of the above problems, the researcher have identified some of the problems encountered are: (1) How the implementing of Learning Cycle model can enhance the student’s learning activity in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun? ; (2) How the implementing of Learning Cycle model can enhance the student’s study result in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun? ; (3) How the positive significant difference in result of activity and study intercycle? In this case the researcher consult with teacher accounting concerned about the implement of Learning Cycle model accompanied with its application steps so that the teacher knows exactly what it's Learning Cycle instructional model that will be expected to increase the activity and student’s study result. The result of this study is expected to add the knowledge, reasoning, insight, ability to researcher in applying the appropriate learning model to enhance the activity and study result of accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun ; As an input to the school, especially for teachers in applying the learning model and method that can be used to make students active in learning of accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun ; As a reference and input to academic community of Faculty of Economics, State University of Medan and other parties in doing the similar study.
Learning Cycle is a learning model that consists of a series of stages of activities organized in such a way so that the learners can master and competent on the subject materials that must be achieved in the way of learning with an active role. The Learning Cycle, originally created by Karplus & Thier and later modified by Roger Bybee for the BSCS project, proposes that learning something new, or understanding something familiar in greater depth, involves making sense of both our prior experience and first-hand knowledge gained from new exploration (Saguaro, 2001).  
Learning Cycle is one of learning model that based on the constructivist paradigm. This learning model suggests that the learning process can involve students in active learning so that there are process of assimilation, accommodation, and organization in the cognitive structure of students. If construction process of knowledge is occur with good so learner will be able to increase their understanding to the topic that learned (Jannah et al, 2012). Constructivism thinking assumes that anything constructed by the learner becomes meaningful and compels him or her to form his or her own perspective about learning through the individual systems and experience and to find a relationship between the previous and the new knowledge (Zaitoon 2009; Gordon and Mordechai 2009, in Qarareh, 2012).
Learning Cycle is also a learning model based on the learner (student centered). Student-centred learning, as the term suggests, “is a method of learning or teaching that puts the learner at the center” (MacHemer et al in Angele Attard et al, 2010). With the application of an Student Centered Learning approach in higher education, there is necessarily a shift in focus from academic teaching staff to the learners.
By applying learning model Learning Cycle, teacher can plan a cycle of learning that could make students dared to express their opinions or ideas without any fear, in addition it also can improve student’s cognitive abilities adapted to the student prior knowledge.
Meanwhile Kusumaningsih (in Jannah and Azizah, Unesa Journal of Chemical Education Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.17-24 Mei 2012) explained the phases of 7E Learning Cycle as below: “In elicit and engage phases, students are given an apperception and motivation which can relate topic that will learned with topic that has been learned previously and give them spirit to learn actively. In explore phase, student are given the opportunity to utilize the five senses as possible to interact with the environment through activities such as experiment, analyzing the article, discussing and observing the natural phenomenon, etc. From this activities, students are encouraged to do assimilation causing an imbalance in their mental structure (cognitive disequilibrium) and the emerging questions that lead to the development of high level reasoning. The emergence of these questions as well as an indicator student readiness to pursue the next phase. In explain phase is expected emerge imbalance process between the new concepts learned through activities that require reasoning power. This phase correspond with accommodation phase in student’s mental function. In elaborate phase, students are invited to apply their concept understanding through activities such as completing the real problems that related with topic or doing experiments. Application of concept can increase of the concept understanding and motivation to learn because students know the real application of the concept that learned. In evaluate phase, students are given several questions to know their understanding of topic being learned. The last phase is extend. This phase can stimulate the students to find the relationship of concept that learned with the other concept”.
Activity theorists claim that conscious learning and activity or performance are interactive and interdependent, “we cannot act without thinking or think without acting; they are the same” (Jonassen, 2000). The important distinction is that in order to think and learn, it is necessary to act on some entity (physical, mental, or social). Kalantzis and Bill Cope (2012) said that learning activities, as the name suggests, are “activities designed or deployed by the teacher to bring about, or create the conditions for learning and also employing various learning activities and other approaches to teaching relates to the pedagogical character or focal intent of the activities selected.”
According to Sardiman (2011:100) learning activity consisted of two aspects: (1) Mental activity is a willingness to be deployed and directed to things that are active and mentally in order to obtain an optimal study result namely: listening, observing, remembering, and spreading ; (2) Physical activity is an activity that has a role is only member of body. Example, where one learns by reading books, but perhaps the thoughts and attitudes are not fixed on the books read. According to Kearsley and Shneiderman (2003) stated "by engaged learning, we mean that all student activities involve active cognitive processes such as creating, problem-solving, reasoning, decision-making, and evaluation. In addition, students are intrinsically motivated to learn due to the meaningful nature of the learning environment and activities”.
According to Diedrich (in Sardiman 2008:101), the variety of student activities that include physical activity and mental activity, it can be classified as follows: (1) Visual activities, content: reading, watching pictures, demonstrations, experimental work of others ; (2) Oral activities, content: talking, formulate, asking the questions, giving advice, giving the opinion, hold the interview, discussions, interruptions ; (3) Listening activities, namely: listening, conversation, discussion, music, speech ; (4) Writing activities, namely: writing stories, making the composition, reports, questionnaires, copying ; (5) Drawing activities, namely: drawing, making graphics, making the map, diagram (6) Motor activities, namely: conducting experiments, making the construction, refit model, playing, gardening, farming ; (7) Mental activities, content: respond, remember, solve the problems, analyze, see relationships, making the decisions ; (8) Emotional activities, content: interested, bored, excited, passionate, courageous, quiet, nervous.
According to Kennedy (2006:4), “study results are statements of what a student should know, understand or be able to do at the end of a learning activity”. Adam (2004) expressed that :“Learning result is a written statement of what the successful student/learner is expected to be able to do at the end of the module/course unit, or qualification. Learning results are concerned with the achievements of the learner rather than the intentions of the teacher (expressed in the aims of a module or course). They can take many forms and can be broad or narrow in nature”.
Accounting is one the subject field in Senior High School. It is one of the very important lesson. Thus, it can be concluded that the study result of accounting is the explicit description of what students have gained trough the completeness process of teaching and learning in accounting subject and shown through the numerical value from results of evaluations conducted.
Based on the four relevant researchs conducted before, then the implementation of Learning Cycle model is expected can enhance the student’s learning activity and study result in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Program Grade 11th SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun.
The action hypothesis in this research are: (1) The implementing of Learning Cycle model can enhance the student’s learning activity in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun ; (2) The implementing of Learning Cycle model can enhance the student’s study result in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun ; (3) There is positive significant difference in result of learning activity and study result intercycle.

METHODOLOGY
This research will be conducted in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun Jln. Perdagangan Km. 35 Marihat Bandar – Kec. Bandar Kab. Simalungun at Academic Year 2012/2013. The subject of this research is the students in 3rdSocial Science Grade 11th totaling 32 people. The object of this research is the implementation of Learning Cycle model to enhance the student’s learning activity and study result of accounting. The type of this research is CAR or Classroom Action Research which is consisted of four stages, namely planning, action, observation and reflection.
To obtain the accurate data it should be made the valid and reliable instrument. There are two types of data collection that is used in conducting this study, namely the observations of student activities in group by analyzing the activity of student in the learning process and giving the test after the lesson.

The research instruments used to collect the data in this study are the observation sheet. Observations conducted during the learning process takes place. Observation aims to determine how the activity of the students and also the teacher in the learning process takes place when Learning Cycle model applied. The observation technique used by listing the observation sheet that has been prepared. As well as observation sheet, there is also use the test to measure the students’s study result after Learning Cycle model implemented. Test that will be used is in form of objective test which consist of five options those are a, b, c, d, and e in order that taken the ability of accounting student’s study result after learning process. Before the tests being tested, it will be done the trial of the validity of the tests in the similar school (state school).
Data Analysis Techniques
The data that obtained will be in form of qualitative and quantitative.
The technique of data analysis that will be used this study are:
Data Reduction 
Data obtained from the tests is reduced and classified into several categories and then organized in order to obtain the meaningful information By correcting the students's test results then can be found the mistakes of the students. Thus reduction of activities aims to see students's errors in solving problems in accounting and the actions taken to improve the error.
Data Presentation
Data presentation done after the data reduction has done first. The results of data reduction will be analyzed based on the minimum completeness criteria namely 65 set by school. A student is declared to have achieved competence when obtaining a score of 65 and the class is declared complete if 70% of the total number of students reached minimum completeness criteria set by school.
Quantitative data analysis was calculated using two types of assessment, namely assessment of averages and assessment of learning completeness.
Beside analyzing the completeness criteria, which also analyzed is about the activity during the learning process by using percentage of descriptive analysis  in  quantitative in exposure of student errors answer, and then categorized in a classification very good; good; good enough; and not good.
To know about the significance difference in result intercycle, then it is held the t-test. If t count> t table in level of significance 95% and α = 5% with dk =  n1 + n2 - 2, then it declares that learning activity and study result in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun at academic year 2012/2013 is significance, and conversely, if  t count< t table  then it declares that the learning activity and study result is not significance.
Making the conclusion
The final stage is making the conclusion based on results of data analysis. From the results of data, it will be taken the essence as the conclusions and useful in planning the improvement of learning after conducting the study.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This research consisted of two cycles in which the first cycle performed in two times and in the first meeting there were pretest. In the second cycle there were two meetings where in the end of each cycle was held post test to determine the changes that occur.
Based on the result of a trial conducted by researchers at SMA Negeri 1 Bandar Simalungun then obtained from the 40 items that tested to the students, totaling to 35 people then showed that only 30 items have valid and being used in research to test the student’s study result conducted by researcher to get the data.
Analyzing the results of Learning Activities
The results of the observation of the students during the learning activities taken place with the implementation of Learning Cycle model had enhanced or increased from cycle I to cycle II, it can be seen in Appendix, the data obtained from the observation sheet of student’s learning activities. There are four aspects to be assessed. They were visual activities (reading the result of the subject material that had been learned and giving attention on the worksheets), oral activities (conversation, asking the questions, giving advice, giving the opinion, discussions and interruptions), listening activity (listen to the teacher’s explanation and the presentation of the other students), writing activities (making the report and summary of the subject material that had been learned). All of six aspects was given a score and assessment criteria.
Filled the learning activity in observation sheets done twice during the Implementation of Learning Cycle model in the first and second cycle. The results of learning activities in the first and second cycle can be seen in the following table:
Table 4.1
The Results of Student’s Learning Activity
Cycle
Level of Student’s Learning Activity
Very good
Good
Good enough
Not good
First cycle
-
8 People (25%)
17 People (53.1%)
7 People (21.9%)
Second cycle
10 People
(31.3%)
17 People (53.1%)
5 People
(15.6%)
-

More detail can be seen through the image chart below:
Figure 4.1
Chart of Student’s Learning Activity


Based on the analysis of student learning activities can be known, that the percentage of student learning activity in the first cycle is 0 (0%) people in very good learning activity category, 8 people (25%) good category, 17 people (53.1%) good enough category, and 7 people (21.9%) in not good category. Based on these data, the activity of the students still not achieve the completeness study standard so it will be continued to the second cycle with the material subject namely statement of capital change and balance sheet. During the learning process that had been taken place on the second cycle, the researcher noticed students' learning activities and students were given at the end of the meeting posttest to measure student’s completeness study of the material and the result is there were an enhaning in the second cycle namely up to 10 people (31.3%) very good activity category, 17 people (53.1%) good category, 5 people (15.6%) good enough category, 0 people (0 %) not good category. Then, it can be concluded that the activity in the second cycle had improved and enhanced from cycle I.
From the results above it can be seen that the student’s learning activities significantly enhanced from cycle I to cycle II. The results of the observations and the results of learning activities during the implementation of Learning Cycle model had been enhance from cycle I to cycle II. It is proven from the activity of students in the learning process has lead to active learning better. Students had been able to build a partnership with their friends in discussion, pay more attention to each presentation of another students, able to listen to the opinions and referrals and able to write the summary of the subject material learned namely the financial statement.
Calculating and Analyzing the Study Results
Data from the study result that had been reduced would be used to calculate the completeness both individuals and classical. Based on the minimum completeness criteria established by school, a student is declared finished studying or reaching the competency that taught if the student get scored 65.
In the first cycle the class had not yet reached the classical completeness because only 20 students or 62.5% of students who have completed or competent whereas the declared class to achieve completeness if 70% of the total reaches get the value ≥ 70%. From the analysis of research data, the study result gained during the teaching and learning process can be seen in the following table:


Table 4.2
Student’s Study Result


Kind of test
Competent
Not competent
Number of students
%
Number of students
%
Pre test
6
18. 8 %
26
81.2%
Posttest  (first cycle)
20
 62.5 %
12
37.5%
Posttest (second cycle)
26
81.3%
6
18.7%

More detail can be seen through the image chart below:

Figure 4.2
Chart of student’s Study Result
 

The picture above shows that in the pre test there are 6 person (18.8%) students who completed, whereas in the first cycle there are 20 people (62.5%) of students who completed study, the second cycle the number of students who completed are 26 (81.3% ). This is shows that there are an enhancing from the pre test  up to post test in second cycle so that it can be concluded that student’s study result through the implementation of Learning Cycle model tends to enhance.
Analyzing the Difference in Result intercycle
To find out the enhancing between the learning activity intercycle or from first up to second cycle and the study result of the first up to second cycle it can be used with the t test. From the calculation gained the average of study result (x)  in post test at first cycle 66.218 with standard deviation 21 and the average of study result (x)  in post test in second cycle 80.156 with standard deviation 14.7, next in the calculation of study result average in post test at first and second used the t-test, and based on the calculation it was gained the combination standard deviation 18.1.
The calculation of average learning activity (x)  in first cycle namely 49.281 with standard deviation 15.5 and the average of learning activity (x)  in second cycle 68.937 with standard deviation 15.1, and for calculation the average of learning activity in posttest in first and second cycle namely used t-test, so based on the calculation gained the combination of standard deviation 15,4. The result of t count and t table as follow:
Table 4.3
The Result of t-test Table
t-test
N
tcount
ttable
Study result
32
3.09
2.00
Learning activity
32
5.09
2.00

The calculation gained tcount = 3.09. The calculation ttable =2.00. By comparing the tcount and ttabel gained tcount>ttable namely 3.09>2.00. Thus study result of accounting in first post test at first cycle and second post test in second cycle is significance. The calculation ttabel for learning activity is 5.09. By comparing the tcount and ttable gained tcount>ttabel namely 5.09>2.00. So that the learning activity in first post test at first cycle and second post test second cycle is significance.
Discussion
After the planning time was fixed then the reseacrher back again to develope the lesson plan which is consisted of the development of the observation sheet and the test that would be tested to the students. The researcher made a small discussion with two accounting teachers in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun about the development of the evaluation before the test to be validity tested. From the discussion the researcher decided to test as much as 40 items that would be tested in the similar school.


Action is the stage of the implementation of planning that has been made namely the teacher play a role as a teacher to apply the learning model of Learning Cycle model in the material subject about preparing the financial statements of service companies. The researcher also observed and record all activities undertaken during the learning process in accordance with the observation of student activity. In this first cycle the research conducted as much as two meetings. At the initial of research in the first cycle there were gave the pre test to determine the extent of student’s understanding of the material to be studied and end with the giving the post test to determine the changes that occur. If the result of study under the minimum completeness criteria namely 65, then the student not competent yet and if 70% of the total number of students in the class not reached the value 65 so the classical completeness not been gained yet, so it must been continued to the next cycle.
Observation activities carried out during the process of implementing the Learning Cycle model. Observer or researcher was helped by the accounting teacher to observe the student also. Observer did the observation and monitor the learning activities of students based on the observation sheet which had been made before. From the observation conducted by the researcher as the observer, it can be concluded that there were most of students still felt strange of the learning model applied.
Based on the analysis it can be concluded that the acquisition value of the first cycle did not reach the minimum completeness criteria in the classical namely 70% of students have gained ≥ 65 because of there are only 62,5% ​​of students who reach the completeness. It was caused due to several factors, one of which was because students had not been able to adapt to a new learning model applied. Besides, due to the low activity of student in the learning process based on the observation sheet. It is also proven from the discussions among the students, there were many students who did not played an active role in the discussions and looked not looked good cooperation among the group members. To overcome these problems it need to proceed to the next cycle.
In the second cycle, there were also two meetings where the material being taught was about the preparation of capital change statement and the elements of it. Based on the reflection of the first cycle, the researcher designed the steps that would be held on the second cycle by paying attention for the weaknesses in first cycle namely the student had not been able to adapt the Learning Cycle model  that was applied, also the low activity of student in the learning process as seen from the discussions among the students, that there were still many students who did not play an actively in the discussions and had not seen good cooperation between group members.
The action on the second cycle conducted similarly with the first cycle, the steps and also coducted in two meetings on Monday and Tuesday in the same time. The difference was in the subject material and also the extra action to get students more active in the classroom when the applying of the learning model took place.
Because of the changes that had been made students were more active in following subjects as well as done the quize. More conducive in learning environment and students’s sense of responsibility towards their duties enhanced. The student’s activity enhanced. From the observation that had been conducted it could be seen from the seriousness of the students of listening to the teacher explanation and the the other students when they presented the subject material in front of the class, able and courageous in arguing, and when discussions run, the cooperation and sharing among smart students and the students who were less familiar with the subject matter had occured.
The results of the observation of student activity during the learning process by implementing Learning Cycle model from the first cycle up to the second cycle, students were more enthusiastic about learning and given a good response. The improvement of student’s learning activities is in line with the study result of students in the second cycle. Thus it can be concluded that the implementation of Learning Cycle model can improve the student’s learning activities and study result in accounting subject in 3rd Social Science Grade 11th in SMA Negeri 2 Bandar Simalungun with the basic competency “preparing the financial statements of service companies”.

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Conclusion
From the data and data analysis of research it can be concluded that: First, by applying the implementation of Learning Cycle model based on the observation results obtained that in the second cycle can enhance the student’s learning activity. It is proven that there occured the enhancing of student’s learning activity from 0 (0%) people in very good learning activity category, 8 people (25%) are good category, 17 people (53.1%) are good enough category, and 7 people (21.9%) enhanced being 10 people (31.3%) in very good activity category, 17 people (53.1%) in good category, 5 people (15.6%) in good enough category, 0 people (0 %) in not good category. It is declared that there is a positive enhancing between first cycle up to second cycle. Second, by applying the implementation of Learning Cycle model proves that there had been occured the enhancing of student’s accounting study result. It is seen from the pre test that got with the average value is 48.41, and in the first post test enhanced 17.79 point being 66.2. Because it still not reached the average of classical completeness yet, it was necessary to continue to the second cycle. In second cycle the average have enhanced 14 point to the average value being 80.2. Third, the calculation gained tcount = 3.09. The calculation ttable =2.00. By comparing the tcount and ttable gained tcount>ttable namely 3.09>2.00. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a positive significant difference in study result intercycle. Fourth, the calculation ttable for learning activity is 5.09. The calculation ttable =2.00. By comparing the tcount and ttable gained tcount>ttable yaitu 5.09>2.00. Thus, it can be concluded that there is significant difference in learning activity intercycle
Suggestion
Based on the conclusion above, it is suggested several points that contents: (1) Especially for teachers of accounting subject in order to use the  Learning Cycle model as a variation of learning model in teaching and learning process mainly for basic competence on preparing the financial statements of service companies ; (2) If the teachers want to use this model, the division should be submitted to the student group itself, so students can participate more actively and discuss within the group they made, so the more familiar groups both inside and outside the group ; (3) For further research, researchers may use the same title but with a longer time with wider sources and different strategies as a comparative study of the field of study especially on accounting subject.

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